Afro-European

Afro-European (Black Europeans) are citizens, immigrants, mixed raced individuals of African descent. Significant communities are found in France, Britain, and the Netherlands.


Britain

Timeline of Afro-European History

60,000 to 50,000 BP(Before Present) Modern humans(Cro-Magnum) in Europe
1200 Trojan war ,Legendary Ethiopian King Memnon is reported to have sent black soldiers to fight against the Greeks
332 Alexander conquers Egypt, Ptolemy rule Egypt, Alexandria becomes capital of Egypt 
237 bc Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal) begins conquest of 
            Iberia for Carthage
220 bc Iberia becomes part of the Carthaginian Empire
264-241 bc First Punic War
218-201 bc Second Punic War
218 bc Hannibal crosses the Alps invades Roman territory
149-146 bc Third Punic War
146 bc Carthage destroyed, province of Africa Vetus
58 bc Black(Aethiopes) troops in Roman army in Germania campaigns
46 bc Numidia conquered, province of Nova Africa
31 bc Battle of Actium, Egypt becomes Roman province
27 bc Africa Veta & Nova Africa joined into Africa Proconsularis
25 bc Mauretania becomes part of Roman Empire
24 bc Kushite military lead by Kandake Amanirenas defeats Roman military at Aswan, Philae, and Elephantine initiating stalemate war with Rome to 21 bc
21 bc Kandake Amanirenas makes treaty with Roman Emperor Augustus, favorable to Kushite Meroitic Kingdom in trade and political concession
193-211 Septimius Severus-Berber Roman emperor
200s Roman Emperor Diocletian paid tribute to Sudanese tribes,Nobatae and Blemmyes, to prevent raids
200s Blacks(Aethiopes) in Roman Army in Britannia campaigns
217-218 Marcus Opellius Macrinus, Berber Roman Emperor
429 Invasion of Africa by the Vandals
596 The fall of the Vandals 
1404 First sugar mill(engenho) built in s. Portugal, learned 
from the Italians-Genoese were experts in sugar production
1450-1600 750,000 Africans shipped out of Africa, mainly Portuguese
1500s Portuguese begin transporting Africans to Sri Lankan 
1510 Alessandro de' Medici is born
1517 Black eunuchs being sent to Crimean Khanate
1599 Sicilian Antonio da Noto canonized
1600 Slavery began to be affiliated with blackness in the European mind;slavery before was multiracial more white slaves from eastern Mediterranean, Russia, and Central Asia
1600-1708 English East India Company founded
1602-1799 Dutch East India Company founded
1601-1700 2.5 mil Africans shipped across the Atlantic
1621-1674 Dutch West India Company
1701-1800 6.5 mil Africans shipped across, mainly English ships
1704 Abram Hannibal sold to czar Peter the Great
1801 Achard opens first sugar beet refinery in Prussia(Germany)
1801-1870 2.7 mil shipped across the Atlantic
1807 Sicilian Benedict the Moor canonized
1848 Slavery abolished, finally, in all French territories
1863 Netherlands bans slavery in all her territories
1870 Moret Law ends slavery in Spain & colony(Cuba, PR)
1877 Portugal ends slavery
1878 Germany becomes the largest producer of sugar, from beets
1884 Berlin Conference, Scramble for Africa


Main Article: Afro-British

Black British comprise 2.2% of the British population. They are predominantly of African(800,000) and Anglo-Caribbean roots. Britain has 1/3 of a million mixed race of Caribbean and white individuals. The growth among Afro-Caribbean population has been slow .9%. Black Britons view themselves as British first and black second. They can be found throughout Britain, with the greatest concentration in London. They are concentrated in the following boroughs of London: Hackney (12%), Lambeth (12%), Newham (13%) and Southwark (16%).

France

Main Article: Afro French

French citizens who are black and reside in France, come from francophone Africa or the Caribbean, and South American departments. The French Republic holds that race does not exist. This perspective has made blacks invisible in the society. Because race does not exist, France does not collect data on race and ethnicity. It is estimated that 5-6 million blacks live in France, of which 3.5 million are of African roots (French Interior Ministry estimate). The majority of Afro-French were born in France.

Germany

Main Article: Afro-German

Afro-Germans are estimated to be at 300,000 to 500,000. It is difficult to get an accurate count since the German government does not keep stats on ethnicity. Afro-Germans can be described as children of German and black parentage or Africans, Caribbeans, African-Americans living in Germany for several years. Their is a biological component to being German in German society. Ones parent must be German.The German government once required that at least one parent be German to be a citizen. This has change with the requirement that individuals must have lived in the country for at least three years.

Italy

Main Article: Afro-Italian

Afro-Italian come from a variety of backgrounds. Afro-Arabs make up the bulk of the African population at 69.6%, with the following major group breakdown:

Moroccans (452,000).
Tunisia (100,000) 
Egypt (75,000) 
Senegal (70,000)
Nigeria (40,000) 
Ghana (40,000)

Afro-Italians also have roots in Burkina Faso, Somalia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Cape Verde, Jamaica, and Dominican Republic. 2/3rds(  (66.3%) tend to live in three regions: Lombardy (29%), Emilia Romagna (14.8%), Piedmont (10.2%) and Veneto (12.3%).

Netherlands

Main Article: Afro-Dutch

They comprise of Africans, .8% Caribbean, and South Americans. The black population is estimated at 5%. There is also an illegal immigrant population in the 


Netherlands. Afro-Dutch tends to be from Dutch previous and present overseas territories-- Suriname(Creoles and Maroons), Curacao, Bonaire, Aruba, and Africa(Morocco 2%, Ghana, Cape Verdean).


Portugal

Main Article: Afro-Portuguese

The number of blacks in Portugal is not reliable. Researchers have put the figure between 300,000-500,000. Others have put the figure higher. The government does not keep ethnic data, largely due to the notion of "luso-tropicalism", an ideology created by the Brazilian Gilberto Freyre in the 1950s, which spread the idea that the Portuguese were better colonisers than the French, British, Belgium, and Dutch.

Spain

Main Article: Afro-Spanish

They are estimated at 683,000. Afro-espangnols of today come from Nigeria, Senegal, Equitorial Guinea, and Dominican Republic. A strong Afro-Arab population from North Africa(Morocco, Algeria, Tunis) exist. In 2009, about 7,500 descendants of Africans were born in Spain. Although, the visible blacks of today are recent arrivals, Spain has always had black people. Between the time of the Castillian Kingdom and mid-1700s, Spain had a sizeable black population of 100,000.  After Spain lost her commercial empire, most slaves in Spain were freed. In a few generations, the population intermarried into the general Spanish population. The only group that claim black descent in Spain, going back a century or more, can be found in Gibraleon and Niebla--towns founded by escaped slaves from southern Portugal in Alentejo.

Russia

Main Article: Afro-Russian

They makeup 1% of one-hundredth of 1% of the country or 14,000, according to Cultural Foundation for Mixed-Race Children. Most are mix-race(metisdescendants of African and Soviet women. They are scattered all over the country.