Afro-European (Black Europeans) are citizens, immigrants, mixed raced individuals of African descent. Significant communities are found in France, Britain, and the Netherlands.
Main Article: Afro-British
Black British comprise 2.2% of the British population. They are predominantly of African(800,000) and Anglo-Caribbean roots. Britain has 1/3 of a million mixed race of Caribbean and white individuals. The growth among Afro-Caribbean population has been slow .9%. Black Britons view themselves as British first and black second. They can be found throughout Britain, with the greatest concentration in London. They are concentrated in the following boroughs of London: Hackney (12%), Lambeth (12%), Newham (13%) and Southwark (16%).
Main Article: Afro French
French citizens who are black and reside in France, come from francophone Africa or the Caribbean, and South American departments. The French Republic holds that race does not exist. This perspective has made blacks invisible in the society. Because race does not exist, France does not collect data on race and ethnicity. It is estimated that 5-6 million blacks live in France, of which 3.5 million are of African roots (French Interior Ministry estimate). The majority of Afro-French were born in France.
Main Article: Afro-German
Afro-Germans are estimated to be at 300,000 to 500,000. It is difficult to get an accurate count since the German government does not keep stats on ethnicity. Afro-Germans can be described as children of German and black parentage or Africans, Caribbeans, African-Americans living in Germany for several years. Their is a biological component to being German in German society. Ones parent must be German.The German government once required that at least one parent be German to be a citizen. This has change with the requirement that individuals must have lived in the country for at least three years.
Main Article: Afro-Italian
Afro-Italian come from a variety of backgrounds. Afro-Arabs make up the bulk of the African population at 69.6%, with the following major group breakdown:
Afro-Italians also have roots in Burkina Faso, Somalia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Cape Verde, Jamaica, and Dominican Republic. 2/3rds( (66.3%) tend to live in three regions: Lombardy (29%), Emilia Romagna (14.8%), Piedmont (10.2%) and Veneto (12.3%).
Main Article: Afro-Dutch
They comprise of Africans, .8% Caribbean, and South Americans. The black population is estimated at 5%. There is also an illegal immigrant population in the
Netherlands. Afro-Dutch tends to be from Dutch previous and present overseas territories-- Suriname(Creoles and Maroons), Curacao, Bonaire, Aruba, and Africa(Morocco 2%, Ghana, Cape Verdean).
Main Article: Afro-Portuguese
The number of blacks in Portugal is not reliable. Researchers have put the figure between 300,000-500,000. Others have put the figure higher. The government does not keep ethnic data, largely due to the notion of "luso-tropicalism", an ideology created by the Brazilian Gilberto Freyre in the 1950s, which spread the idea that the Portuguese were better colonisers than the French, British, Belgium, and Dutch.
Main Article: Afro-Spanish
They are estimated at 683,000. Afro-espangnols of today come from Nigeria, Senegal, Equitorial Guinea, and Dominican Republic. A strong Afro-Arab population from North Africa(Morocco, Algeria, Tunis) exist. In 2009, about 7,500 descendants of Africans were born in Spain. Although, the visible blacks of today are recent arrivals, Spain has always had black people. Between the time of the Castillian Kingdom and mid-1700s, Spain had a sizeable black population of 100,000. After Spain lost her commercial empire, most slaves in Spain were freed. In a few generations, the population intermarried into the general Spanish population. The only group that claim black descent in Spain, going back a century or more, can be found in Gibraleon and Niebla--towns founded by escaped slaves from southern Portugal in Alentejo.
Main Article: Afro-Russian
They makeup 1% of one-hundredth of 1% of the country or 14,000, according to Cultural Foundation for Mixed-Race Children. Most are mix-race(metis) descendants of African and Soviet women. They are scattered all over the country.
Related Articles: Mulatto , Code Noir , Siete Partidas , Spanish Creoles of Afro descendants, Spanish Casta , French Colonial Race Categorizaton , Dutch Creoles of Afro-descendants , French Creoles of Afro-descendants , English Creoles and Languages of Afro-descendants , European Beauty Queens of African Descent , Blacks in Crimea (Crimean Khanate) . Asiento , Timeline of Caribbean History