Afro-Latino

Afro-Latino are Latinos of African descent. They can be black or the numerous admixture one finds in Latin America. The term usually refers to those of African descent living in Hispanic countries or countries of South, Central America, and the Caribbean that speak Spanish. Afro-descendants of Brazil and Haiti are sometimes included since they speak a latin base tongue. Culturally, politically, and socially, Brazil and Haiti belongs to the lusophone and francophone world, respectively.

Time line of Afro-Latino History

1492 Pedro Alonzo Nino-navigator of Santa Maria Columbus's ship
1493 Columbus introduce creole sugarcane to new world
1501 Spanish throne approves African slavery
1502 Portuguese delivers first slave in the Americas, Ladinos
1518 First large shipment of bozales, African born slaves
1513 thirty Africans with Balboa when discover Pacific
1517 Bishop de Las Casas advocate African slavery over native
1519 300 Africans with Hernando Cortes on conquest of Mexico
1533 Pizzaro with black, free & ladinos on conquest of Incas
1539 Estevanico leads expedition from Mexico thru Southwest
1563 Blacks encouraged to marry other blacks
1572 Child of free and slave with indian women is tributaries
1600 a total of 900,000 slaves brought to Latin America
1640 Portugal no longer source of slave for Sp. Territory
1750 England ends asiento via commercial treaty
1791 Haitian Revolution-produce shockwave in Latin America
1807 Portuguese court flees to Brazil, after French invasion
1821 Central American Federation(Guatamala, El Salvador,                     Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica) ends slavery
1822 Haiti ends slavery in the Dominican Republic via invasion
1829 Mexico abolishes slavery,except Texas
1833 Chile, Article 132 of Constitution, ends slavery
1851 Ecuador ends slavery, July 25
1853 Argentina ends slavery, Article 15 of constitution
1853 Uruguay pass final law ending slavery
1854 Venezuela ends slavery, March 24
1854 Peru ends slavery, December
1861 Bolivia ends slavery
1869 Paraguay ends slavery in October
1870 Scientific Racism spreads to Latin America
1886 Cuba finally ends slavery, ends Free Womb Laws
1920 mestizaje(mixing) policy to produce whitening, widespread 

Argentina

Main Article: Afro-Argentine

Afro-Argentine are mix race or Afro-descendant. Africa Vive a rights organization for Afro-Argentine estimate the population at a million. Anthropologists estimate population at no more than 10,000. The Afro-Argentine population is believed to have been decimated by war, intermarriage, and possibly government sponsored genocide. In the latter 19th century, Argentina used to be 11% black and higher in previous decades.

Bolivia

Main Article: Afro-Bolivian

Afro-Bolivians are Bolivians of African descent. They number 30,000. Black people are usually referred to as negros. The term Afro Bolivianos has appeared only in the past ten years with the birth of the Black Consciousness Movement. Some may even be called zambos, but rarely are they called mulattos.

Brazil

Main Article: Afro-Brazilian

Afro-Brazilian are divided into preto(black) and pardo( brown, mixed ancestry), although 134 categories of race has been noted in Brazil. As of 2010, Brazil was 7.5% preto(black) and 43% pardo. Afro-Brazilians are now the majority population in Brazil, at 49.6%. Afro-Brazilians tend to concentrate in the northeastern part of Brazil. Large numbers exist in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Sao Paulo, and Minas Gerais.
 
Years  Total Import Spanish America  Total Import Brazil  Average for Spanish America per year Average for Brazil
1551-1600  62,500  50,000  1,250  1,000 
1601-1700  292,500  560,000  2,925  5,600 
1701-1810  578,600  1,891,400  5,786  18,914 
         

Chile

Main Article: Afro-Chilean

Afro-Chilean are Afro descendants in Chile. They are mainly located in Arica y Parinacota in northern Chile. They are not recognize by the Chilean government as an ethnic. Organizations like Afro-Chilean Alliance(Lumbanga, Oro Negro and Arica Negro) are striving to include Afro-Chileans as an ethnic in the census of 2012. According to Afro-Chiliean Alliance the population is estimated to be 8,000.

Colombia

Main Article: Afro-Colombian

Colombia has the third largest black population outside of Africa and the second largest in Latin America, after Brazil. The black population officially is 26% of the population, experts put it at 36-40% or 11 million.  Afro-descendants can be found in regions such as Choco, Buenaventura, Cali, Cartegena, San Andres Island, and throughout the country. 

Costa Rica

Main Article: Afro-Costa Rican

They make up 3% to 9% of the population. They can be found in regions like Puerto Limon and Guanacaste on the Caribbean coast.

Cuba

Main Article: Afro-Cuban

According to Minority Rights Group International, Afro-Cubans range from 33.9 percent to 62 percent. CIA factbook says Cuba is 10.1% Black and 24.8% mulatto/mestizo. According to the Cuba Transition Project by the University of Miami, Cuba is 62% Afro-Cuban. They tend to concentrate in the eastern part of the island around Havana, Santiago de Cuba province, and Guantánamo province.

Dominican Republic

Main Article: Afro-Dominican

According to CIA Factbook, Dominicans are 11% black and 73% mix(predominantly mulatto).

Ecuador

Main Article: Afro-Ecuadorean

Afro-Ecuadorian are descendants of African slaves brought to Ecuador, during the Spanish colonial era. They comprise 5-10% of the population or 1.5 million to 450,000. They tend to concentrate in the northwestern coast of the country, Esmeraldas Province and Imbabura Province.

El Salvador

Main Article: Afro-Salvadoran

Blacks have completely mixed into the general mestizo population. A total of 10,000 African slaves were brought to El Salvador. El Salvador has no English antillean (West Indian), Garifuna, and Miskito population, largely due to laws banning the immigration of  blacks into the country in the 1930s. These laws were revoke in the 1980s.

Guatemala

Main Article: Afro-Guatemalan

Afro-Guatemalans comprise 1-2% of the population. They are of mainly English speaking West Indian(Antillean) and Garifuna population. They are found in the Caribbean coast, in Livingston (a Garifuna settlement), Puerto Barrios and Santa Tomas. During the colonial period, African slaves were brought in, but have mixed with the general population and can be referred to as Afro-mestizos.

Haiti


Haiti is 93% black and 5% mix and white.

Honduras

Main Article: Afro-Honduran

They are estimated to be a population of 150,000, or 2% of the country. The percentage of the population might be higher. Some Afro-Honduran might be classed as mestizo.The National Assembly of  Afro-Honduran Organizations and Communities put the population at 10%. Afro-descendant in Honduras are of three ethno-origin. Those brought during colonial times and mixed with indians and Spanish, the Garifuna, and the Bay Island Creoles.

Mexico

Main Article: Afro-Mexican 

They were not recognized in the Mexican census for 95 years. The Mexican government finally recognized Afro-Mexicans as a national ethnic at 1.38 million or 1.2% of the population on December 8, 2015The African presence in Mexico is a subject often denied, but people of African descent have influenced every aspect of Mexican life, culture, and history. They participated in its discovery, conquest, and independence. 

Nicaragua

Main Article: Afro-Nicaraguan

Black Nicaraguans make up 9% of the population, according to the CIA factbook and can be found in the southeastern coast, the mosquito coast, in Bluefield. In the 1990s, Nicaraguan national census put them at 25,000 or 1% of  the population. They can also be found in Managua. Creoles are from the anglo-caribbean, and speak a tongue similiar to Jamaican patois. Nicaragua also has a Garifuna population.

Panama

Main Article: Afro-Panamanian

Afro-Panamanians are 15% of the population, and it is estimated 50% of Panamanians have African ancestry. The Afro-Panamanian population can be broken into the "Afro-Colonial", Afro-Panamanians descended from slaves brought to Panama during the colonial period and the "Afro-Antillean", West Indian immigrants from TrinidadBarbados, and Jamaica, brought in to build the Panama Canal. Afro-Panamanians can be found in towns and cities Colon, Cristobal and Balboa, Rio Abajo area of Panama City, the Canal Zone, and province of Bocas del Toro.

Paraguay

Main Article: Afro-Paraguayan

Afro-Paraguayan are estimated to be 65,000 by the Joshua Project. They can be found Camba Cua outside Asuncion; Kamba Kokue outside of Paraguari, and the city of Emboscada.

Peru

Main Article: Afro-Peruvian

Afro-Peruvians number 5 to 10% of the population. The population is estimated at 2 million. Large numbers can be found in the southern coast-- Chincha, Lima,Cañete. Nazca, Callao, and Ica, in the north Morropón Province.

Puerto Rico

Main Article: Afro-Puerto Rican

The Puerto Rican government stopped reporting ethnicity in 1950, so it was difficult to verify Afro-Puerto Rican numbers. They are sometimes confused with Dominicans living on the island. World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples put them at a range of 22-65%. CIA Factbook put the number at 6.5% Black and 4.4% mixed. According to recent 2010 census, 461,000 identify themselves as solely black making them 11.58%(461,000/3,978,702) of the population, an increase of 50%. Afro-Puerto Ricans tend to concentrate in the eastern part of the island, the coastal lowlands around cities like Ponce and San Juan, areas such as Cangrejos (Santurce), Carolina, Canóvanas, and Loíza Aldea.

Uruguay

Main Article: Afro-Uruguayan

Afro-Uruguayan are estimated to be about 6% of the population. They are mainly concentrated in Montevideo.
 

Venezuela

Main Article: Afro-Venezuelan

They are estimated to be at 5 million and tend to cluster in Barlovento in Miranda State, although they can be found all over the country. Afro-Venezuelans are hard to identify due to strong racial admixture in the population.

Country Slave Import Black Afro-descendant
Argentina    unavailable  10,000 
Bolivia  500,000  30,000  30,000 
Brazil  3.3-4.5 mil  15,428,767  88,458,262 
Chile  6,000    8,000 
Colombia    12,000,000   
Costa Rica    139,090  139,090 
Cuba  700,000-1,000,000   6,900,000
Dominican Republic    1,100,000 7,400,000
Ecuador    604,009  1,200,000 
El Salvador  10,000  unavailable 
Guatemala    140,990 unavailable 
Haiti  500,000  9,115,548 9,801,664 
Honduras    150,000  829,669 
Mexico  200,000-500,000  unavailable  1,000,000 
Nicaragua    515,494  515,494 
Panama    526,507  1,755,023 
Paraguay      65,000 
Peru  95,000  2,000,000  2,000,000  
Puerto Rico  77,000  461,000  unavailable 
Uruguay    198,980  198,980   
Venezuela  121,000    5,000,000


Works Cited

Acosta, Inès. Afro-Uruguayans to Rebuild Cultural Center. Final Call.18-12-2009 retrieved 03-04-2011




Almudevar, Lola. Afro-Bolivian, Photo-Journal. BBC News.<http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/in_pictures_afro_bolivian_family/html/10.stm> retrieved 14-July-2012

Castillo, Mariano. Minorities now officially a majority in Brazil. CNN, 16 June 2011. retrieved on 09-Oct-2011

CIA Factbook, Cuba.retrieved 05-Oct-2011

Coto, Danica. Prico sees increased in Blacks, American Indians. ABC News 1-April-2011, retrieved 03-October-2011.

Cuba Transition Project(2005). Cuba Facts. University of Miami. retrieved 05-Oct-2011




Black Population Becomes Majority in Brazil. MercoPres. 09-Oct-2011. retrieved on 09-Oct-2011

Estrada, Daniela. Afro-Chileans seek recognition in Census. IPS, July 29, 2010. retrieved 05-04-2011


Friedman-Rudovsky, Jean. Don't Pinch the King. Time 04-Dec-2012. retrieved 21-Jul-2012 <http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1690781,00.html>

Institute of Cultural Development. Diaspora

Joshua Project. Afro Honduran of Honduras retrieved 20-May-2011

Joshua Project. Afro-Paraguayan. retrieved 10-4-2011

Luis Gilberto Murillo (former governor of Choco State, Colombia). (speech)El Choco: The African Heart of ColombiaNew York, February 23, 2001. retrieved 20-May-2011.


Minority Rights Group International. Afro-Panamanian

Minority rights group international. Guatemala Overview

Minority Rights Group International and Indigenous Peoples-Honduras: Afro-Hondurans.

Oro Negro, Fundación de Afrodescendientes de Chile 

Okeowo, Alexis. Afro-Hondurans and the Coup. retrieved 21-May-2011

Peru apologises for abuse of African-origin citizens, BBC News,29 November 2009, retrieved  27-March-2011

William, Kent C. Afromestizo(2001). The African Heritage of Central Mexico. El Salvador.