Afro-Latino are Latinos of African descent. They can be black or the numerous admixture one finds in Latin America. The term usually refers to those of African descent living in Hispanic countries or countries of South, Central America, and the Caribbean that speak Spanish. Afro-descendants of Brazil and Haiti are sometimes included since they speak a latin base tongue. Culturally, politically, and socially, Brazil and Haiti belongs to the lusophone and francophone world, respectively.
Main Article: Afro-Argentine
Afro-Argentine are mix race or Afro-descendant. Africa Vive a rights organization for Afro-Argentine estimate the population at a million. Anthropologists estimate population at no more than 10,000. The Afro-Argentine population is believed to have been decimated by war, intermarriage, and possibly government sponsored genocide. In the latter 19th century, Argentina used to be 11% black and higher in previous decades.
Main Article: Afro-Bolivian
Afro-Bolivians are Bolivians of African descent. They number 30,000. Black people are usually referred to as negros. The term Afro Bolivianos has appeared only in the past ten years with the birth of the Black Consciousness Movement. Some may even be called zambos, but rarely are they called mulattos.
Main Article: Afro-Brazilian
Afro-Brazilian are divided into preto(black) and pardo( brown, mixed ancestry), although 134 categories of race has been noted in Brazil. As of 2010, Brazil was 7.5% preto(black) and 43% pardo. Afro-Brazilians are now the majority population in Brazil, at 49.6%. Afro-Brazilians tend to concentrate in the northeastern part of Brazil. Large numbers exist in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Sao Paulo, and Minas Gerais.
Main Article: Afro-Chilean
Afro-Chilean are Afro descendants in Chile. They are mainly located in Arica y Parinacota in northern Chile. They are not recognize by the Chilean government as an ethnic. Organizations like Afro-Chilean Alliance(Lumbanga, Oro Negro and Arica Negro) are striving to include Afro-Chileans as an ethnic in the census of 2012. According to Afro-Chiliean Alliance the population is estimated to be 8,000.
Main Article: Afro-Colombian
Colombia has the third largest black population outside of Africa and the second largest in Latin America, after Brazil. The black population officially is 26% of the population, experts put it at 36-40% or 11 million. Afro-descendants can be found in regions such as Choco, Buenaventura, Cali, Cartegena, San Andres Island, and throughout the country.
Main Article: Afro-Costa Rican
They make up 3% to 9% of the population. They can be found in regions like Puerto Limon and Guanacaste on the Caribbean coast.
Main Article: Afro-Cuban
According to Minority Rights Group International, Afro-Cubans range from 33.9 percent to 62 percent. CIA factbook says Cuba is 10.1% Black and 24.8% mulatto/mestizo. According to the Cuba Transition Project by the University of Miami, Cuba is 62% Afro-Cuban. They tend to concentrate in the eastern part of the island around Havana, Santiago de Cuba province, and Guantánamo province.
Main Article: Afro-Dominican
According to CIA Factbook, Dominicans are 11% black and 73% mix(predominantly mulatto).
Main Article: Afro-Ecuadorean
Afro-Ecuadorian are descendants of African slaves brought to Ecuador, during the Spanish colonial era. They comprise 5-10% of the population or 1.5 million to 450,000. They tend to concentrate in the northwestern coast of the country, Esmeraldas Province and Imbabura Province.
Main Article: Afro-Salvadoran
Blacks have completely mixed into the general mestizo population. A total of 10,000 African slaves were brought to El Salvador. El Salvador has no English antillean (West Indian), Garifuna, and Miskito population, largely due to laws banning the immigration of blacks into the country in the 1930s. These laws were revoke in the 1980s.
Main Article: Afro-Guatemalan
Afro-Guatemalans comprise 1-2% of the population. They are of mainly English speaking West Indian(Antillean) and Garifuna population. They are found in the Caribbean coast, in Livingston (a Garifuna settlement), Puerto Barrios and Santa Tomas. During the colonial period, African slaves were brought in, but have mixed with the general population and can be referred to as Afro-mestizos.
Haiti is 93% black and 5% mix and white.
Main Article: Afro-Honduran
They are estimated to be a population of 150,000, or 2% of the country. The percentage of the population might be higher. Some Afro-Honduran might be classed as mestizo.The National Assembly of Afro-Honduran Organizations and Communities put the population at 10%. Afro-descendant in Honduras are of three ethno-origin. Those brought during colonial times and mixed with indians and Spanish, the Garifuna, and the Bay Island Creoles.
Main Article: Afro-Mexican
They were not recognized in the Mexican census for 95 years. The Mexican government finally recognized Afro-Mexicans as a national ethnic at 1.38 million or 1.2% of the population on December 8, 2015. The African presence in Mexico is a subject often denied, but people of African descent have influenced every aspect of Mexican life, culture, and history. They participated in its discovery, conquest, and independence.
Main Article: Afro-Nicaraguan
Black Nicaraguans make up 9% of the population, according to the CIA factbook and can be found in the southeastern coast, the mosquito coast, in Bluefield. In the 1990s, Nicaraguan national census put them at 25,000 or 1% of the population. They can also be found in Managua. Creoles are from the anglo-caribbean, and speak a tongue similiar to Jamaican patois. Nicaragua also has a Garifuna population.
Main Article: Afro-Panamanian
Afro-Panamanians are 15% of the population, and it is estimated 50% of Panamanians have African ancestry. The Afro-Panamanian population can be broken into the "Afro-Colonial", Afro-Panamanians descended from slaves brought to Panama during the colonial period and the "Afro-Antillean", West Indian immigrants from Trinidad, Barbados, and Jamaica, brought in to build the Panama Canal. Afro-Panamanians can be found in towns and cities Colon, Cristobal and Balboa, Rio Abajo area of Panama City, the Canal Zone, and province of Bocas del Toro.
Main Article: Afro-Paraguayan
Afro-Paraguayan are estimated to be 65,000 by the Joshua Project. They can be found Camba Cua outside Asuncion; Kamba Kokue outside of Paraguari, and the city of Emboscada.
Main Article: Afro-Peruvian
Afro-Peruvians number 5 to 10% of the population. The population is estimated at 2 million. Large numbers can be found in the southern coast-- Chincha, Lima,Cañete. Nazca, Callao, and Ica, in the north Morropón Province.
Main Article: Afro-Puerto Rican
The Puerto Rican government stopped reporting ethnicity in 1950, so it was difficult to verify Afro-Puerto Rican numbers. They are sometimes confused with Dominicans living on the island. World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples put them at a range of 22-65%. CIA Factbook put the number at 6.5% Black and 4.4% mixed. According to recent 2010 census, 461,000 identify themselves as solely black making them 11.58%(461,000/3,978,702) of the population, an increase of 50%. Afro-Puerto Ricans tend to concentrate in the eastern part of the island, the coastal lowlands around cities like Ponce and San Juan, areas such as Cangrejos (Santurce), Carolina, Canóvanas, and Loíza Aldea.
Main Article: Afro-Uruguayan
Afro-Uruguayan are estimated to be about 6% of the population. They are mainly concentrated in Montevideo.
Main Article: Afro-Venezuelan
They are estimated to be at 5 million and tend to cluster in Barlovento in Miranda State, although they can be found all over the country. Afro-Venezuelans are hard to identify due to strong racial admixture in the population.
Related Article: Spanish Creoles of Afro descendants , Portuguese Creoles of Afro-descendants , Afro-Spanish, Afro-Portuguese, whitening,asado , Free Womb Laws, Royal Decree of Graces of 1815(Cédula Real de Gracias),Siete Partidas, encomienda,Timeline of Afro-Brazilian History, the New Laws of the Indies, ingenio, trapiche, Coartación, patronato, gracias a sacar , New Granada, Peru Viceroyalty, New Spain, casta, La Plata
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