The army was divided into sarawit. Sarawit were groups. They could have been named after districts or ethnic designation. Each sarawit was under a general called a nagast. The army was called upon when needed. Aksumite army numbers have been noted at its lowest number 3,000 to 100,000 at its highest. Account of Aksumite army size varies.
The capital had a standing army that served guard duties in the palace, treasury, and the king's personal body guard.
Aksumite warriors fought with iron spears. They were re-known for being spear throwers. They also fought with round shields. Shields could have been made from buffalo hide." They also did battle with a "broad-blade, flat-ended sword" secured behind the back. Other weapons included poniards or iron knives, "tanged spear-heads."
Aksumite army made use of pack animals transport to items on the battle field. The donkey was made use of. In desert warfare, Aksum made use of camels. Elephants might have been also made use of in battle.
Aksum had a fleet of ships that guarded the Red Sea ports. Aksumite ships were put together by rope fibers. It did not use iron nails to bind wood. Ships sailed as far away as India and possibly China.