Ancient Egyptian Weapons

Ancient Egyptian weapons included mace, swords, shields, chariots, bow and arrow, and axe. Her weaponry remained little change until the New Kingdom, when major technological change and innovation was introduced by Ramsis II.


Egyptians made use of the mace. The mace could break bones and crack skulls. Maces were created by heating rocks and pouring droplets of water on top till a hole was created in the center. This weapons was used for centuries untill Egypt faced threats that made use of metal weapons. soldiers who wore metal helmets for example. By the 1300 BCE,  the mace was made absolete.

Sword and khopesh

The Egyptians made use of straight short sword and long sword. These swords were mainly used for thrusting and slashing.  The sword that was uniquely  Egyptian and different from her neighbors was the khapesh or khopesh. The khapesh originated from the farming implement, the sickle. The cutting segment is on the curve.  The sword was a multi-function weapon. It can thrust, slash, and hook. The hooking motion would have been used to bring down enemy shield and thrusting to bring down the enemy. 

Penetrative Axe

The penetrative axe was another innovation of the Egyptians. It came into being during the 13th century and made use of new metal technology like bronze. The head of the axe was mostly copper and 10% tin used to strike, injure, and kill fleeing and wounded enemies. Bronze used made the head retain its form and sharp edge longer. Untreated leather was used to attach the axe head. Over time the leather would get tighter. The handle was shape not to fall from the hands.


Ancient Egyptian shields were rectangular in shape. It shielded two people from arrows and upfront sword attack. The shield was made of wood, covered with leather made sometimes from leopard hide.

Composite Bow

Ancient Egyptians made use of bows and arrows.  Over centuries they perfected the bow. Egyptian bows were made of composite material--buffalo horns and wood. Buffalo horn sinew and wood was fused with resin made from fish. This was one of the most advance bows during the time of Ramsis II.


Egyptians utilized chariots. Chariots were lightweight, made for speed and impeding the movement of enemies. They developed the chariot via trade and aquisition from neighbors. By the time of Ramsis II, in the New Kingdom , they perfected it and had one of the most advance chariot designs. They massed produced fleets for warfare. The Egyptian chariot was comprised of a long neck with a circular cab, for holding two people. The chariots had two wheels. Each wheel had four or six spokes. The wheels were made of bent wood, with rawhide tires. Each spoke on the wheel were braced with animal fiber.

The cab being tied at the back to a long kneck, provided for a sharp turning circle and easy maneuverability. The advantage of the Egyptian chariot was that it was lite and strong.