Banu Hilal represented a movement of Arab tribes into the Maghreb. The Banu Hilal represented a coastal northern route into the Maghreb from Egypt. The movement represented the arabisation of North Africa and the once predominant Berber population in the early decades of 1,000 A.D. The Berber language with exception to the Sanhaja and Tuareg language was replaced with Arabic.
Shillington, Kevin (2005). History of Africa. Revised 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 157, ISBN 0-333-59957-8