Burundi (bəˈrʊndɪ) is a central African country surrounded by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east, Democratic Republic of Congo to the west, with a location of 3 30 S, 30 00 E. The total area is 27,830 sq km. Bujumbura is the capital. Kirundi and French are official languages.
Burundi has a population of 9,863,117, with a life expectancy of 58.29 years. The population makeup is 85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi,1% Twa (Pygmy), 3,000 Europeans , 2,000 South Asians. Burundi is 62% Roman Catholic, 5% Protestant, 23% indigenous beliefs, and 10% Muslim. 67.3% of male and 52.2% females can read.
Burundi was occupied by the Kingdom of Burundi(Urundi). The Tutsis formed the elite and were pastoralist. The Hutu formed the subject class and were mainly farmers. Identity was not sealed in stone. Hutus could become Tutsis and vice-versa. Both group spoke the same language. Mwami Ntari Rushatsi (c. 1657-1705) founded the Burundi kingdom.
In 1890, the region became a German territory. By 1916, the region was transferred to Belgium. Belgium provided a rigid identification card, dividing the Hutus and Tutsis. Tutsis were used to implement Belgium authoirty.
Burundi received independence in 1962 as a monarchy under King Mwambutsa IV. In 1960, Mwambutsa was deposed by his son Ntare V. Ntare was later deposed by Micombero, who made himself president. Micambero later is deposed by Jean Baptiste Bagaza. In 1987, Bagaza is replaced by Pierre Buyoya. In 1993 Melchior Ndadaye was elected president, the first Hutu president. He was assassinated in October of the same year, hurling Burundi into civil war. Hutu attacked Tutsis with savage reprisal from the Tutsi dominated army. About 300,000 civilians lost their lives in the decade long civil war. It wasn't until 2008, an agreement was made with the last Hutu rebel hold-outs, providing confidence that the civil war will end.
Related Article: Kingdom of Burundi , List of Burundi Kings (mwami) , Common Hutu and Tutsi Names , Kinyarwanda Rwanda Numeration ,