C-Group Culture

C-Group Culture  (c. 2613-1070 BC) was a Nubian culture that developed in lower Nubia(northern Nubia), between the first and second cataract. C group culture occupied a position that was intermediary between Egypt to the North and the Kingdom of Kerma pass the third cataract. The culture parallels the Old Kingdom to Intermediate period of Egypt. The culture was related to the Nubian Kerman state. It was rooted in pastoralism--cattle herding, sheep. Most information comes from graves. Important settlement include Wadi es-Sebua, Aniba , and Saras.

During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt took over Lower Nubia and began building massive forts. The population of Lower Nubia were used extensively in the Egyptian military. They were prized for their use of the bow and arrow.

Graves and other structures

C-group graves are typically a hole covered with circular domes made of stones, tumulus. Bodies are laid on their sides with items like pottery, leather garments (skirts, loincloths and sashes), jewelry, and cattle.  Figures with women forms are sometimes discovered. Items from both Egypt and the Kingdom of Kerma were found in graves. During the Second Intermediate Period, Many C-Group graves were found in Egypt. Graves would later become larger, with giant tumulus, and later the addition of mudbrick chapel to the east side.

Early C-group lived in circular mud huts, in villages. Later, around the 1800s, C-group would evolve into living in fortified villages like Wadi es-Sebua and Amada.


C-group pottery is very distinctive. They were handmade. Geometric shapes were carved and filled with white pigment. Some were red at the body and black at the top.