Chad(tʃæd) is a landlock country, bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, Niger to the west, Cameroon, Central African Republic to the south. It has an area of 1,284 mil square km. The country location is 15 00 N, 19 00 E. N'Djamena is the capital.
Chad has a population of 10,543,464. The population has a life expectancy of 47.99 year. The country is 27.7% Sara, 12.2% Arab, 11.5% Mayo-Kebbi, 9% Kanem-Bornou, 8.7% Ouaddai, 6.7% Hadjara, 6.5% Tandjile, 6.3% Gorane, 4.7% Fitri-Batha, 6.7% other, and 0.3% unknown. The country 53.1% muslim, 20.1% Catholic, 14.2% Protest, 7.3% Traditional, 0.5% Other, 1.7% Unknown, and 3.1% Atheist.
Human occupation of Chad has been very ancient. Some of the earliest hominid can be found in the region. The earliest state was that of Kanem, founded by the Zaghawa people and ruled by Sefuwa Dynasty, the longest serving dynasty in human history. The capital later was moved to Bornu, thereby the name Kanem-Bornu. Kanem was the first capital. The region converted to Islam in the 12th and 13th Dynasty. They controlled the central Saharan trade by exchanging goods like slaves for horses. The kingdom fell in 1883, when it came under the control of Rabih Zubar Fadlallah. The French took over in 1900. In 1960, Chad became independent. Chad was politically divided between northern Arab and southern Sara interest, with the south dominating. Tombalbye, who was politically repressive, was the first president. He was assasinated in 1975. The country fell into civil war in 1979. In 1986, Hissen Habre was able to gain control of the country. In 1990 Idriss Debby, staged a coup and took over the country. Chad experienced three major rebellion under Idriss Debby.
Kneib, Martha(2007). Chad. Marshal Cavendish. ISBN0761423273, 9780761423270
CIA World Factbook, Chad