Guinea(ˈɡɪnɪ) is a west African country bordered by Senegal to the north, with the Atlantic Ocean, Guinea Bissau to the west, Mali, Ivory coast to the east, Liberia, Sierra Leone to the south. The exact location is 11 00 N, 10 00 W. Guinea has an area of 245,857 sq km. Conakry is the capital. French is the Official language.
Guinea has a population of 10,324,025, with a life expectancy of 57.6 years. The population is 40% Peul, 30% Malinke, 20% Soussou, 10% other. The country is 85% Muslim, 8% Christian, and 9% other. The literacy rate is 42.6% for males and 18.1% for females.
The northern half of Guinea was part of the Mali and Songhay Empire. Niani, the capital of the Mali Empire was located in Guinea. The Malinke arrived in the 17th century followed by the Fula. In 1724, the Fula of Fouta Djallon declared jihad and established an empire. Europeans began arriving at the coast in the 15th century trading in slaves. By 1881, France had conquered the region. Guinea achieved independence in 1954. Ahmed Sekou Toure was president. His was a reign of terror with numerous people tortured and executed. Lansana Conte took power in 1984. In 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis Camara initiated a coup. Alpha Conde was elected president in 2010.
Encyclopedia of Nations, Guinea History, retrieved 28-12-2010
CIA, Factbook, Guinea