Leishmaniasis is two disease caused by sand flies:cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis. One catches the disease by bites from sand flies. Visceral leishmaniasis is prevalent in Sudan, Ethiopia, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, Nepal. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is prevalent in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran, Saudia Arabia, and Syria.
- Covering exposed skin area, wearing long sleeve shirts etc.
- Spraying oneself with repellant containing DEET (N,N-diethylmetatoluamide)
- Treat indoors with insecticide
- Screen indoors, like windows
- Use bed nets treated with insecticide (permethrin or deltamethrin)
- Cutaneous leishmaniasis-sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate--fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole--Pentamidine isethionate --topical paromomycin ointment, oral miltefosine, thermotherapy, and intralesional pentavalent antimonial drugs
- Visceral leishmaniasis--Liposomal amphotericin B,sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate,amphotericin B deoxycholate