Libya is a north African country bordered by Tunisia, Algeria to the west, Egypt to the east, Mediterranean Sea to the north, and Chad, 1,759,540 sq km. Tripoli is the capital, with Arabic the official language.
The population of Libya is 6,461,454, with an average life expectancy 77.47 years. The country is 87.1% Arab (of which 57.2% Libyan, 13.8% Bedouin, 7.7% Egyptian, 3.5% Sudanese, 2.9% Tunisian), 6.8% Amazigh (Berber), 6.1% other. Libya is 97% Sunni Muslim, 3% other. 92.4% of males and 72% females can read.
Libya came under Spanish influence with the capture of Tripoli in 1510. In 1551, it came under Ottoman rule. It was ruled by a Turkish pasha and a diwan (assembly comprised of Turkish officers). Turks held all power and positions and excluded native Libyans. Eventually, a mixed ethnic of native Libyan women and Turkish men developed called Kulughlis. Initially, they were excluded from holding position of authority and power. In 1711, Ahmad Qaramanli, a kulughlis initiated a coup, usurping power. Because of the popularity of Ahmad's government among the populace, he was recognize as the first line of Qaramanli pashas, by the Ottoman Empire. The Qaramanli Dynasty lasted till 1835.
Benghazi and Tripoli were major exit point for slaves from the trans-Saharan trade. Most traverse the Fezzan in southern Libya from Chad, originating from the Hausa Kingdom, Kanem-Bornu, or Wadai. The Fezzan was rule once by an all black dynasty. Kanem Bornu once held the territory.