Libya


Libya
Capital: Tripoli Nationality: Libyan Population: 6,597,960
Currency: Libyan dinars (LYD) Off. Lang: Arabic Area: 163,610 sq km
Internet DM: ly GDP: $90.57 bil Life Exp: 77.65 years
Literacy: 82.6% Location: 25 00 N, 17 00 E Calling Code: 218

Libya is a north African country bordered by Tunisia, Algeria to the west, Egypt to the east, Mediterranean Sea to the north, and Chad,
Perry-Castañeda
Niger, Sudan, to the south. The location is 25 00 N, 17 00 E. Libya has a total area of 1,759,540 sq km. Tripoli is the capital, with Arabic the official language.







Demographics


The population of Libya is 6,461,454, with an average life expectancy 77.47 years. The country is
87.1%  Arab (of which 57.2% Libyan, 13.8% Bedouin, 7.7% Egyptian, 3.5% Sudanese, 2.9% Tunisian), 6.8% Amazigh (Berber), 6.1% other. Libya is 97% Sunni Muslim, 3% other. 92.4% of males and 72% females can read.

History


Libya came under Spanish influence with the capture of Tripoli in 1510. In 1551, it came under Ottoman rule. It was ruled by a Turkish pasha and a diwan (assembly comprised of Turkish officers). Turks held all power and positions and excluded native Libyans. Eventually, a mixed ethnic of native Libyan women and Turkish men developed called Kulughlis. Initially, they were excluded from holding position of authority and power. In 1711, Ahmad Qaramanli, a kulughlis initiated a coup, usurping power. Because of the popularity of Ahmad's government among the populace, he was recognize as the first line of Qaramanli pashas, by the Ottoman Empire. The Qaramanli Dynasty lasted till 1835.

Benghazi and Tripoli were major exit point for slaves from the trans-Saharan trade. Most traverse the Fezzan in southern Libya from Chad, originating from the Hausa Kingdom, Kanem-Bornu, or Wadai. The Fezzan was rule once by an all black dynasty. Kanem Bornu once held the territory.