Malawi(məˈlɑːwɪ) is a landlocked country bordered by Mozambique, Zambia, and Tanzania, with a location of 13 30 S, 34 00 E. The total area is 118,484 sq km. The capital is Lilongwe.
The population is 15,447,500.The country is 34.7% Chewa, 12.2% Maravi, 9% Ngoni, 7.9% Tumbuka, 7.9% Yao, 7.7% Lomwe, and 3.5% Ngonde. Other ethnics include Nyanja, Sena, Tonga, Asian, European and other which comprise 17.1% of the population. The population is 79.9% Christian, 12.8% Muslim, 3% other, and 4.3% none. The literacy rate is 76.1% male and 49.8% female.
Malawi saw waves of immigration in the 4th century AD, via the Bantu expansion. The Chewa started organizing into states during the 1400s. The Chewa originated in DRC. They initially conquered the Batwa and initiated a series of conquest of neigbhoring states, using novel fighting techniques, forming the Maravi Empire, which included all of Malawi, parts of Mozambique, and Zambia. During the early 1800s the empire was destabilized by invading Ngoni from South Africa and Yao slavers from Mozambique. The Yao sought slaves and sold to Swahili slavers. The Yao brought great distabilization to the region with the use of guns.
In 1889, the British claimed sovereignty of the region and named the region Central African Protectorate. The British claimed the region to thwart Portuguese agenda to deprived British traders access to Lake Nyasa. Harry Johnston was assigned administrator. Johnston's army received stiff opposition from Yao, Chewa, Swahili, and Ngoni. Johnston offered ultimatum of submission with taxation or death with taxation. The British claimed the region on the pretense of ending the slave trade, but engage in land and cattle grab for white settlers. The region was conquered with help from the Nyanga (victims of slave trading), an army of 300 Sikhs, gun boats on the lake, and ultimately the maxim gun.
Struggle for independence began in the churches. Religious leader John Chilembwe headed a rebellion in 1912 against colonial rule. He was shot fleeing to Mozambique. By the 1940s, a highly educated segment of native African Malawian agitated for independence. This culminated in the formation of the Nyasaland African Congress in 1944. The party later change its name in 1959 to the Malawi Congress Party, headed by Dr. Hasting Banda. The party engage in strikes, civil disobedience, and protest.
By July 6, 1964, Malawi became independent, with Hasting Banda the first president. Banda ruled Malawi with an iron fist. He made Malawi a one party state. In 1971, he declared himself president for life. In 1992, Malawi experience a devastating drought. Stiff opposition to the Banda regime from the international community and church activism called for democratic reform. In May of 1993, Malawi became a multiparty state with election held on May 17, 1994, with Bakili Muluzi head of UDF( United Democratic Front) being elected. He won a second term. This triggered civil strife between the Christian north and muslim south, which resulted in much property damage. In 2005, Bingu wa Mutharika won election and later in 2009.
The Malawi Stock Exchange (MSE) was founded in 1994, but trading began in 1996. As of May 2013 , fourteen companies were listed on the exchange.
CIA, Factbook, Malawi
The World Statesman, Malawi
Hooker, Ryan. How to Invest on the Malawi Stock Exchange. <http://investinginafrica.net/invest-malawi-stock-exchange/>