Republic of Mali
Capital: Bamako Nationality: Malian Population: 14,159,904
Currency: XOF Off. Lang: French Area: 1,240,192 sq km
Internet DM: ml GDP: $16.77 bil. Life Exp: 52.61 years
Literacy: 46.4% Location: 17 00 N, 4 00 W Calling Code: 223

Mali (ˈmɑːlɪ) is a landlocked country that is bordered by Mauritania, Senegal to the west, Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, and Ivory Coast, Guinea, Burkina Faso to the south. The country has an area of 1,240,192 sq km. Mali's location is 17 00 N, 4 00 W. 





Mali's population is 13,796,354 with a life expectancy of  52.17 years and literacy rate of 53.5% for male and 39.6% for female. The population is 50% mande (Bambara, Soyinke, Malinke),  17% Peul, 12% Voltaic, 6% Songhai, 10% Tuareg and Moor, and 5% other. Mali is 90% Muslim, 9% traditional, and 1% Christian.


Mali has been inhabited since the stone age, when the Sahara was a wet oasis. With the rise of the trans-Saharan trade between the Mediterranean coast, Sahel, and the forest zone, we see the rise of powerful empires: the Ghana Empire which was dominant from the 400 AD to the 1100s and later replace by the Mali Empire in the early 13th century; the Songhay Empire eventually replaced the Mali Empire at the latter part of the 15th century as the dominant power. The mainstay of the Sahelian empires was control of the trans-Saharan, trade in gold, salt, and slaves. Songhay was invaded by Morocco in 1591 and crumbled. Moroccans were never able to retain control of the region. Around this time, we see the rise of numerous state Segou, Kaarta, the Peul Kingdom, Kenedougou, Khasso, Logo, regions controlled by Amadou Sekou and Samory Toure. In the 19th century we see the rise of the Tukulor Empire founded by El Hadj Omar Tall. The French invaded the region in 1890. Mali became independent in 1960. Modibo Keita became president and run a repressive government. Modibo was usurped in a bloodless coup by Moussa Traore in 1968. Mali, since then,  was ruled by a military dictatorship. In 1990, the country faced a Tuareg rebellion, pushing for independence of the Azaouad region. In 1992, Alpha Oumar Konare became the country's first democratically elected president. In 2002, Amadou Toumani Toure was elected president.


Works Cited

Velton, Ross(2009). Mali. Bradt Travel Guide. ISBN 1841622184, 9781841622187

CIA, Factbook, Mali