Mozambique(ˌməʊzəmˈbiːk) is an east African country, bordered by Tanzania to the north, Zimbabwe, Zambia to the west, South Africa and Swaziland to the south, with a location of 18 15 S, 35 00 E. Maputo is the capital. Portuguese is the official language.
The population is 22,061,451, with a life expectancy of 41.37 years. Mozambique is 99.66% African (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), 0.06% Europeans, 0.2% mix, and 0.08% Indians. The country is 23.8% Catholic , 17.8% Muslim , 17.5% Zionist Christian , 17.8% other, and 23.1% none. 63.5% of males can read versus 32.7% of females.
The Bantu Expansion reached Mozambique around 100 A.D.-300 A.D.
Swahili traders began arriving around the nineth and tenth century A.D. forming trading towns. The most famous of the Swahili towns was Sofala, located south of the mouth of the Buze River.
Vasco da Gama was the first Portuguese to arrive in Mozambique around 1498. In 1507, the Portuguese takes over Mozambique Island and makes the island their base, in east Africa. In 1895, Mozambique is taken over by the Portuguese.
The independence movement began around the 1950s. In 1962, the three major anti-colonial parties joined to form the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique(Frelimo). Between 1964-75, Frelimo wages war of independence. In 1974, Mozambique is granted independence because of coup in Portugal. Samora Machel becomes the first president.
In 1977, Mozambique breaks out into civil war, pitting Frelimo against Renamo (Mozambican National Resistance). Renamo is backed by South Africa. Joaquim Chissano becomes president after the death of Machel in a plane crash. The civil war ends in 1992, with the signing of a treaty in Rome. Elections were called in 1994, with Joaquim Chissano becoming president and Renamo winning 112 seats in the legislature.
Chissano is re-elected again in 1999. In the 2004 election, Amando Guebuza is elected president.
Mozambique Stock Exchange began operation in 1999. Its first listing was State Treasury Bonds worth USD $ 4 million. It list both equities and bonds. The largest companies in the country are listed. As of September 2009, it was reported to have 17 listed companies.
CIA, Factbook, Mozambique