Naqada II , Gerzean

Naqada II(3500 BC-3200 BC) or Gerzean Period was a period in Ancient Egytian pre-history following Naqada I. Cultural Naqada II traits are found throughout egypt. New materials were used for the production of vessels, utensils, and tableware. Older decorative motifs became more prevalent and new motifs were introduce. Based on pottery and imported items, Egypt was more involved  in long distance trade with Nubia and Palestine.

Material 


During the period, new materials began to be used. Silt from the Nile River, mixed with chaff began to be used to make a tableware, vessel and storage containers and a wide variety of pottery utensils. Another major innovation was the use of Marl clay found in the limestones of mountains around the valley but geographically distant. The material was difficult to work with but produce a very hard quality container for storing foodstuff--milk, honey, and other fluids. New pots were made which were medium and small in stature, globular like a barrel, with handles that were pierced holes. Naqada II saw the use of colorful hardstone and breccia being shaped and carved into containers and vessels. Metallurgy also begins to spread. Mastery of flint is apparent, by the appearance of numerous flint knives being found.

Decoration


Decoration were typically triangular forms along the top of vessels, representing hills. Zigzag lines representing water. Representation of ships became more widespread. They were curved, with an abundance of oars extending out, and a cabin. Female figurines were marked by broad hips.