Republic of Niger
Capital: Niamey Nationality: Nigerien Population: 17,078,839 mil
Currency: CFA (XOF) Off. Lang: French Area: 1.267 mil. sq km
Internet DM: ne GDP: $11.93 bil. Life Exp: 53.8 yrs
Literacy: 28.7% Location: 15 00 N, 19 00 E Calling Code: 227

Niger (nahy-jer) is a landlock country, surrounded by Algeria, Libya to the north, Mali, Burkina Faso to the west, Chad to the east, and Benin, Nigeria to the south. The country has a total area of 1,247 sq km.  Niger is located 16 00 N, 8 00 E. Her capital is Niamey.


Niger has a population of 15,878,271 and an average life expectancy of 52.99 years, a literacy rate of 42.9% male and 15.1% female. Niger is 55.4% Hausa,  21% Djerma Sonra, 9.3% Tuareg, 8.5% Peul, 4.7% Kanuri, 1.2% other.


Human habitation in Niger goes back 90,000 years. Numerous kingdoms existed before the arrival of the Islam in the 8th century. The region was a major transit point of various Sahelian states and empires: the Songhay Empire with its capital at Gao, the Hausa States, the Kanem-Bornu Empire, the Air Sultanate. Empire and states were actively engage in trade of slave, gold, horse, and leather with the Mediterranean coast of Africa and a transit point for the coastal states-- Asante, Oyo, Dahomey. During 18th century, the religious charismatic leader Ousman Dan Fodio declared Jihad in the region and founded the Sokoto Caliphate. During the early 19th century explorers like Mungo Parks and Heinrich Barth explored the region. In 1897, France invaded the region and took complete control in 1900. Independence was achieved in 1960.

In 1996, Niger under Colonel Ibrahim Bare experienced a coup. In 1999 Bare was killed under another coup by Major Daouda Mallam Wanke. Election was held and Mamadou Tandja won and became president. In 2005, Niger experienced major droughts. In 2010, Tandja was usurp by the Restoration of Democracy(CSDR), after Tandja dissolved the constitution and tried to declare himself president for life.

Works Cited

Geels, Jolijn(2006). Niger:The Bradt Guide. ISBN 1841621528, 9781841621524

CIA:Factbook. Niger