Primary Sources


Ancient Sources

Asian Sources

Arab Sources

Books of Roads and Kingdoms by Al-Bakri
Work of Al Muhallabi, 10th century writer  (work cited by Yakut 13th century geographer, no longer exist)
Monumenta Cartographica Egyptae et Africae by Yusuf Kamal

Chinese Sources

China Discovers Africa by J. J. L. Duyvendak
Chu fan chi by Chao Ju Kua, translated by F. Hirth

European Sources

Dutch Sources


English Sources

Narrative of travels and discoveries in northern and central Africa, in ... 1822, 1823 and 1824, by major Denham, capt. Clapperton and dr. Oudney. With an appendix by Dixon Denham, Hugh Clapperton(google ebook)

Portuguese Sources

Account of Sierra Leone and the Rivers of Guinea of Cape Verde

French Sources