Rwanda


Republic of Rwanda
Capital: Kigali Nationality: Rwandan Population: 11,689,696
Currency: Rwandan francs (RWF) Off. Lang: Kinyarwanda/Fr/Eng. Area: 26,338 sq km
Internet DM: rw GDP: $13.46 bil. Life Exp: 58.44 yrs
Literacy: 70.4% Location: 2 00 S, 30 00 E Calling Code: 250

Rwanda(rʊˈændə) is a central African country bordered by Congo to the west, Tanzania to the east, Uganda to the north, and Burundi to
the south, with a location of 2 00 S, 30 00 E. Kigali is the capital. Kinyarwanda and English are the official language. French is widely spoken.




Demographics


The population is 11,055,976, with a life expectancy of 57.46 years. The population is 84% Hutu, 15% Tutsi, and 1% Twa. Religious afiliation is 56.5% Roman Catholic, 37.1% Protestant, 4.6% Muslim, 0.1% indigenous beliefs, and 1.7% none. The literacy rate is 76.3%  for men and  64.7% for women.

History


Rwanda was occupied by the Kingdom of Rwanda, founded by Mwami Ruganzu Ndori. It was ruled by a Tutsi overlord and Hutu subject class. Both group spoke the same language. Being Tutsi and Hutu was flexible. A Hutu could become Tutsi by acquiring wealth and via marriage. A Tutsi could become a Hutu by losing wealth. The last Mwami was Rwabugiri, who died in 1895, plunging the kingdom into dynastic chaos. The Germans seized the opportunity and took control of the region in 1897. The Kingdom of Burundi was added together with Rwanda and ruled as Ruanda-Urundi. 

In 1918, Burundi and Rwanda was transferred to Belgium. Belgium used Tutsi's to enforce their rule. They introduce identification pass differentiating Hutu from Tutsi.

The independence movement began during the latter 50s, with Hutus founding PARMEHUTU (Party for the Emancipation of the Hutus). In 1962, Rwanda receives independence. Gregoire Kayibanda becomes the first president of Rwanda. Independence brought massacre to the Tutsi population, with large numbers becoming refugees, fleeing to Uganda. The Hutu dominated government engaged a policy of marginalization of the Tutsi population, restricting employment in the universities, public sector, with massacres continuing to the 80s. 

In 1973, massacre of Tutsis spread chaos to Rwanda. General Juvenal Habyarimana took over to bring order. The National Revolutionary Movement for Development (Mouvement Revolutionnaire National pour le Developpement, or MRND) is organized by Habyarimana, making Rwanda a one party state. 

In October of 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invades Rwanda. The RPF was a Tutsi dominated party organized in Uganda. Fighting continues to 1993, with a cease fire being reached, calling for a unity government, overseen by the UN peace troops--Arusha Accord. 

In 1994, President Habyarimana stalls in implementing a power sharing government and steps up training of Hutu militias. Radio Mille Collines, also begins broadcasting hate filled rhetoric at Tutsis.

On April 6, 1994, President Habyarimana and President Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi plane was shot down near Kigali, triggering the genocide of Tutsis. Tutsis were slaughtered to the month of July, when the RPF captures Kigali and the government of Rwanda flees to Zaire. In November, the U.N. Security Council establishes an international tribunal to try perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide. It was not until the end of 1996 was trials conducted on those involved in the genocide. 


Works Cited

CIA, Factbook, Rwanda
pbs.org. Rwanda: A Historical Chronology retrieved 11-Nov-2011