Republic of Senegal
Capital: Dakar Nationality: Senegalese Population: 12,969,606
Currency: CFA (XOF) Off. Lang: French Area: 196,722 sq km
Internet DM: sn GDP: $25.4 bil. Life Exp: 60.18 yrs
Literacy: 39.3% Location: 14 00 N, 14 00 W Calling Code: 221

Senegal (ˌsɛnɪˈɡɔːl)
is a west African country bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, Gambia
 to the west, Mali to the east, Mauritania to the north,Guinea Bissau, Guinea to the south. The exact location is 14 00 N, 14 00 W with a total area of 196,722 sq km. Dakar is the capital.


The population size is 12,323,252 with an average lifespan of 59.39 years. Senegal has a literacy rate of  51.1% for males and 29.2% females. The population is 43.3% Wolof, 23.8% Pular, 14.7% Serer, 3.7% Jola, 3% Mandinka, 1.1% Soninke, 1% Lebanese and European, and 9.4% other. French is the official language.


The region was dominated by the Ghana Empire. The Tekrur Kingdom gained a short-lived dominance, to be dominated by the Mali Empire. At the decline of the Mali Empire, we see the rise of the Wolof Kingdom, which conquered other polities Waalo, Cayor, Bawol, Sine, and Saloum.

The Portuguese arrived in 1490. Trade was initially in gold and later slaves. In 1768, the British claimed the region. In 1840, Senegal became a French colony. Slavery was abolished in 1848. The French experience stiff resistance from the Tukulor.

Senegal became independent in 1960, under Leopold Senghor. The state experience revolt from the Diola of Casamance. In 1982, Senegal became a union with Gambia, Senegambia that dissolved in 1989. Abdoulaye Wade won re-election in 2000 and is the present president.

Works Cited

Sharp, Robin(1994). Senegal: a state of change. Oxfam, ISBN 0855982837, 9780855982836

Berg, Elizabeth L. and Wan, Ruth. Senegal. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761444815, 9780761444817

CIA.World Factbook. Senegal