Sokoto Caliphate

Growing resentment of Hausa taxation and the Hausa aristocracy by Fulani herdsman and Hausa townsmen saw the rise of charismatic religious teacher Usman Dan Fodio. Usman tried to bring about a purer form of Islam among Fulani herders and Hausa townsmen. Usman Ideology was based on five governing principles.

  1. Leadership given to the non-seeker
  2. Government based on consultation
  3. Governance that is not harsh
  4. Government based on good works

He became very influential in the Hausa city states of Gobir and Kebbi, to the point that the Gobir Saki Yunfa tried to assassinate him. The attempt led to Usman declaring jihad, with support from Fulani herdsmen and Hausa townsmen. Gobir was the first to fall. By 1808, all of Hausaland was under Usman's control. The Hausa aristocracy was replaced with a Fulani aristocracy, which became Hausa in culture. Sokoto, near Kebbi, became the capital of the caliphate.

Usman attempted to place his ideology to practice. Usman Dan Fodio thought government should be structured around four ministers of government:
  1. The wazir(chief secretary)
  2. Judge who is intellectually astute
  3. Chief of Police, who is just
  4. Tax collector, who is just

Usman's successor Muhammad Bello expanded the empire. Under Bello the Sokoto caliphate extended west to Songhai, east to Kanem, and South to include Nupe and Yoruba state of Ilorin.