Tanzania


United Republic of Tanzania
Capital: Dar Es Salaam Nationality: Tanzanian Population: 43,601,796
Currency: Tanzanian shillings (TZS) Off. Lang: Kiswahili(Swahili) Area: 947,300 sq km
Internet DM: tz GDP: $63.44 bil. Life Exp: 53.14 yrs
Literacy: 69.4% Location: 6 00 S, 35 00 E Calling Code: 255

Tanzania(ˌtænzəˈnɪə)is an east African country bordered by  Uganda, Kenya to the north, Congo to the west, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia to the south, with a location of 6 00 S, 35 00 E. The total area is 947,300 sq km. Dar es Salaam is capital. Swahili and English are the official language.







Demographics


The population is 41,892,895, with a life expectancy of 52.49 years. The population is 99% speaker of the Niger Congo Bantu family and 1% other. The religious affiliation is 30% Christian, 35% Muslim, 35% traditional beliefs.  Zanzibar is 99% Muslim. The literacy rate for men is 77.5% and women 62.2%.

History


Tanzania came about with the political union of Tanganyika and the island of Zanzibar. Tanganyika was named for Lake Tanganyika. The territory was part of German East Africa. Tanganyika's independence movement had its initial start during the 1920s, organization like Tanganyika Civil Service founded in 1922 and Tanganyika African Association(TAA) founded in 1929 were at the forefront. In 1954,Tanganyika African National Union headed by Julius Nyerere eventually eclipse all other parties with much broader reach and support. After World War II, Germany lost all her African territories and Tanganyika came under British rule. In 1964, Tanzania achieved independence from Britain. 

In 1963, Zanzibar became an independent sultanate, lead by the Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP) and Zanzibar and Pemba Peoples Party(ZPPP) with support of the Afro-Shirazi Party(ASP). In 1964, Sultan Mohammed Shamte was overthrown with much support from ASP. ASP was a pro-TANU organization. It immediately called for union with Tanganyika, the same year of 1964. In 1967, Nyerere made the Arusha Declaration, embarking on the socialist experiment of ujaama, largely due to loss of credibility in bringing about an economically prosperous Tanzania. Individual Tanzanians were forced on community farms, in an attempt to raise productivity and self-sufficiency. 

In 1977, ASP and TANU fused into one party--Chama Cha Mapinduze. During the 1980s, Tanzania experienced much economic hardship. Nyerere was forced to implement structural adjustment programs. In 1985, Ali Hassan Mwinki became president of Tanzania. He implemented Economic Recovery Program(ERP) suggested by the IMF, which made Tanzania's economic state worse. 

By 1991, Tanzania became a multiparty state. In the election of 1995, Ben Mkapa became president.