Timeline of African American History



Date  Event 
1600s
1619 First black slaves arrive in Jamestown, Va (British America)
1624  First black child born in English-America, William Tucker 
1641  Massachusetts becomes first of the colony to legalize slavery 
1663  First recorded slave/indentured conspiracy by black and white, in Gloucester, Va 
1664  Maryland passes the first anti-miscegenation law, barring marriage between whites and blacks 
1688  First anti-slavery protest by Germantown Quakers at monthly meeting  
1700s   
1704  Frenchman Elias Neau, opens up school for slaves 
1712  Slave revolt in New York. Nine white killed and twenty-one slaves executed 
1730  Slave plot discovered in Norfolk and Princess Anne, Va 
1739  September 9, slave revolt in Stono, South Carolina. Twenty five whites died before insurrection was put down 
1756  Blacks served in the French and Indian War 
1766   George Washington orders one slave to be sold to the West Indies for molasses, rum, limes, tamarinds, sweet meats, liquor 
1767 Phillis Wheatley writes poem "A Poem by Phillis, A Negro Girl, On the Death of Reverend George Whitefield", published in 1870 
1770 -Crispus Attucks runaway slave 1st to be killed in the Boston massacre 
  -Lord Mansfield makes decree that all slaves free if they join British forces 
1775  -many Minutemen were black volunteers, who Paul Revere warned 'the British are coming' 
  -Black soldiers, such as Lemuel Haynes, Ethan Allen, the Green Mountain Boys help capture Fort Ticonderoga, NY 
-Black soldiers such as Salem Poor, Barzillai Lew, Cuff Whitmore fought courageously at the Battle of Bunker Hill; Peter Salem fired the shot that killed British Major John Pitcairn
-The Massachusetts Committee of Safety stipulates only free blacks may serve in the Revolutionary Army
-General George Washington issues decree after taking command forbidding black recruitment in the military
  -Lord Dunmore, governor of Virginia, decreed all slaves free if join the British army 
  -George Washington ordered the enlistment of blacks in the military, after Dunmore's decree 
-Continental Congress authorizes the navy to recruit both free and slave to served in the American Navy
-Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery, the first abolition organization, in the US is founded by Quakers  
1777  Vermont was first state to abolish slavery, followed by Ma & NH(1783), Penn(1780), Conn & RI(1784),NY(1799), NJ(1804) 
1778  After the winter of Valley Forge, Blacks(free and slave) were welcome into the Revolutionary Army. 5,000 black soldiers fought in all major battles. They fought in integrated units. 
1787  Apr. 12, Free African Society is organized by Absalom Jones and Richard Allen 
  Jul. 13, slavery forbidden in Northwest Territory 
  Sep. 12, first black masonic lodge, African Lodge No. 459, founded by Prince Hall veteran of the war 
  Sep. 17 Constitution enacted with three clause protecting slavery 
1790  Black population is @ 757,208 
1791  Benjamin Banneker served on commission that surveyed Washington, D.C. 
 Haitian Revolution, first succesful slave uprising in history, sends shockwave in all slaveholding societies in the Americas
1793  Feb 12, First fugitive slave act passed by Congress, criminalizing the harboring and preventing the arrest of runaway slaves 
1794  Mar 14, Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin making cotton king in the south and increased the need for black slave labor 
  Jul. 17, Absalom Jones, an Episcopalian, was the first black ordained minister in America
  Bethel AME church was founded by Richard Allen 
1796  Zion Methodist Church founded in New York 
1796  Jan. 30,Congress refused to accept petition of blacks 
  Sojourner Truth is born in Hurley, New York 
1800s  
1800  -1,002,037 Blacks in America 
-Gabriel Prosser and Jack Bowler plans uprising, plot discovered, Prosser and numerous conspirators executed 
-A ban on exporting slaves by any US citizen was enacted 
1803 -Louisiana Purchase from France, territory from Mississippi R. to Rocky Mountains 
1804 -York, a slave, served as guide to Lewis & Clark to the Pacific 
-All states north of the Mason Dixon Line(Maryland border, 19 miles south) forbids slavery or had laws for its demise
-First Masters of Arts(Middlebury College) degree awarded to a black person, Rev. Lamuel Haynes
1806 -Edward Rose leads Mountain Men west, Rose became guide to numerous fur companies 
1807 -two boatloads of slaves, arriving in Charleston, South Carolina , starved themselves to death than be enslaved 
1808 -Jan. 1 slave importation to US prohibited 
  -1 million enslaved Africans in US
1810  -1,377,808 is the black population 
1814  -Andrew Jackson request for black troops, black troops fought on land and water in the War of 1812
1816  -American Colonization Society formed to transport free blacks back to Africa 
1817  -Frederick Douglas is born in Tuckahoe, Maryland 
1818  -Battle of Suwanee, a force of black and Seminole defeated by Andrew Jackson, ending the 1st Seminole War 
1820 -Black population is at 1,771,656 (18.4%) 
1822  -Denmark Vesey slave insurrection plot discovered, 37 hanged, Vesey and 5 aides hanged 
1826  -John Russwurm, the first African American college graduate, received degree at Bowdoin  
1827  -Freedom's Journal first African American newspaper is publish Mar. 16 in New York City 
1830  -African American population is at 2,328,642(18.2%) 
  -James Augustine Healy first African American Roman Catholic bishop 
1834  -David Rugles open first African American bookstore in New York City,white mobs burned down store next year 
  -Henry Blair first African-American to receive a patent, corn harvesting device, first time race of inventor noted 
1835  -a convention in Philadelphia suggested blacks remove 'African' from the names of their institutions, many early black 
institutions in America used the word 'African' to describe their organizations because many freed slaves had recollections of being in Africa
  -Second Seminole War, blacks were with Seminoles on attack of Florida settlements, considered the largest slave revolt
1838  August, Mirror Liberty first African American magazine published by David Ruggles 
1839  -Feb. 25, Seminoles and black allies shipped from Tampa Bay, Fl to West 
  -Nov. 13, Liberty Party formed, first political party whose main issue was the abolition of slavery  
  -George Latimer fugitive slave, captured triggering crisis between North and South over slavery 
1845  -Macon B. Allen , first African-American admitted to the bar, Worcester, Mass. , May 3
1847  -Jun 30, Dred Scott case begins 
  -July 26, Liberia an independent republic is founded by African American ex-patriot
  -Dec. 3, North Star, Frederick Douglas's paper printed for the first time
1849  -Harriet Tubman escapes from Maryland slavery-returns 19 times, emancipates 300 slaves 
  -Apr. 28, supreme court establishes "separate but equal doctrine" in Boston school case brought by Benjamin Roberts 
1850  -Feb. 15 Black abolitionist crashed into Boston court and rescued fugitive slave 
  -Sep. 11 Black abolitionists scattered slave catchers in Christiana, Pa. One white killed and another wounded
  -Oct. 1 Black & White abolitionist crashes court in Syracuse NY and frees fugitive slave 
  -Services of Colored Americans in the Wars of 1776 and 1812 by William C. Nell, first extended history of African Americans 
1852  Mar. 20, First edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin 
1853  -Clotel by William Wells Brown, first African American novel 
1854  -Jan. 1, Lincoln University(Ashmum Institute) in Chester County, Pa founded, first African American college
  -Anthony Burns, fugitive slave captured and escorted by 2,000 US troops out of Boston 
  -May 30, Kansas-Nebraska Act opens Northwestern Territory to slavery, neutralizes Missouri Compromise
1855  -Apr. 5, Booker Taliafero Washington is born in Franklin County 
  -Mar. 6, Dred Scott decision opens all federal territory to slavery, concludes African Americans are not citizens of US 
1858  -The Escape by William Wells Brown,first African American play published 
1859  -In February, Arkansas legislature put all blacks on notice, leave or be enslaved
  -Oct. 16-17, John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry with 13 whitemen and 5 African Americans
  -Dec. 2, John Brown hanged at Charlestown, Va 
  -The Clothilde delivers the last slave shipment on US soil 
1860  -African American population @ 4,441,830 
  -Nov. 6, Abraham Lincoln elected president of the US 
1861  -Abraham Lincoln requests for troops, black recruits were turned away from the Union Army for two years
  -Aug. 30, Gen. John C. Fremont proclaims slaves free in Missouri, Lincoln nullifies proclamation 
  -Sep. 25, Secretary of Navy authorizes black enlistment 
1862  -Mar. 13, Congress forbids soldier to assist in the return of fugitive slaves  
  -Apr. 16 slavery ends in DC 
  -May 9, David Hunter organizes First South Carolina Volunteers 
  -Aug. Jim Lane organizes First Colored Kansas Volunteers 
  -Gen. David Hunter proclaimed all Georgia, Florida, South Carolina slaves free, revoked by President Lincoln 
  -Robert Smalls hijacks the steamer Planter from Charleston, SC  and delivers it to the US Navy
  -Jul. 17, congress passes law allowing the recruiting of black soldiers 
  -Jul. 17, congress frees slaves of all rebels
  -Sep. 23, Lincoln discusses plans to acquire territory for sending all free black people 
  -Oct. 28, First Kansas Colored Volunteers repulse rebels at Island Mound, Mo. First black troops to engage in battle 
  -Dec. 1, Lincoln discusses bonds as compensation for states that abolish slavery 
1863  -Jan. 1, Lincoln signs Emancipation Proclamation, applied only to rebel states, did not apply to border states 
  -Jan. 26, Fifty Fourth Massachusetts Volunteers was first black regiments formed in the North 
  -Mar. 10, two Black Regiments, First and Second South Carolina captures Jacksonville, Fla.  
  -May 1, Confederacy declared black troops criminals to be enslaved or killed 
  -May 22, War Department starts Bureau of Colored Troops, active campaign for Black in the military 
  -Jun. 7, at Miliken's Bend, La. black regiment and small detachment of white troops, repulse Texas rebels 
  -Jul. 1-3, the capture of Fort Hudson included 8 black regiments 
  -Jul. 13-17, New York Draft Riot, worst race riot in US, triggered by fear of draft and hostility towards blacks 
  -Jul. 17, Honey Springs, Indian territory, First Kansas played major role in capturing rebel force 
  -Jul. 18, Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Volunteers northern black regiments made charge of Fort Wagner, SC-African American William H. Carney received Congress Medal of Honor for charge 
  -Jul. 30, Lincoln issued "an eye for an eye" order, stipulating for every black POW killed, a rebel POW will be killed, for every
black POW enslaved, a rebel POW will get hard labor for life, diminishing the killing of black soldiers captured by the confederacy  
1864  -Apr. 12, Fort Pillow in Tenn captured by majority Black regiment, was recaptured by Nathan Bedford Forrest, who massacred all blacks, whites, women and children
  -Apr. 18, First Kansas Colored Volunteered drove through rebel lines in Poison Spring, Ark.  sustaining massive casualities, wounded black soldiers were murdered by Confederate soldiers
  -Apr. 30, Union troops kept Confederate troops at Bay in Jenkins' Ferry, Saline River, Ark., the Second Kansas Colored Volunteers went into battle shouting "remember Poison Spring" 
  -May 24,First and Tenth U.S.C.T repulse attack by Confederate Fitzhugh Lee at the Battle of Wilson's Wharf Landing, 
  -Jun. 10, Black brigade halted expansion of General Nathan Bedford Forrest at Battle of Brice Cross Roads near Guntown, Miss.
  -General Charles J. Paine's black division spearheaded the attack on Petersburg, splitting rebel defense which resulted in 200-300 rebel troops being captured
  -Jun. 15, Congress equalize pay, equipment, arms, and medical treatment for black troops 
  -Jun. 16-April, 1865 black regiments play prominent role in the seize of Petersburg and Richmond; 32 Black infantry regiments, 2 Black cavalry regiments, were involve in the seige 
  -Deep Bottom Aug. 14-16;Darbytown Road Oct. 13;Fair Oaks Oct. 27-28;Hatcher's Run Oct. 27-28  were sieges with significant Black input
  -Jun. 19, Joachim Pease, black sailor, won Congressional Medal of Honor, for service at sea in the battle between USS "Kearsage" and CSS "Alabama" off Cherbourg, France 
  -Jul. 15, General A.J. Smith defeats Nathan B. Forrest at Harrisburg near Tupelo, Miss.-a brigade of Black troops took part  
  -Jul. 30, Black soldiers saw battle at rebel lines near Petersburg, Ninth Corps had the largest casualty, the Forty-Third U.S.C.T. was the only success with capture of 200 rebels;Decatur Dorsey of the Thirty Nineth of the U.S.C.T. won Congressional Medal of Honor
  -Aug. 5, John Lawson, black gunner, awarded Congressional Medal of Honor for courage in the Battle of Mobile Bay on the flagship of Admiral David Farragut 
  -Sep. 29-30, black troops saw battle at Chaffin's Farm in Richmond, captured New Market Heights, usuccessful attempt to capture Fort Gilmer, repell counter-attack on Fort Harrison. Twelve black soldiers won Congressional Medal of Honor 
  -Dec. 3, the Twenty-Fifth Corps, the largest all black unit the US army established 
  -Dec. 10-29, the Sixth and Fifth Cavalry saw battle under Major General George Stoneman in his invasion of southwest Va, the Sixth Cavalry served with distinction in Marion, Va  
  -Dec. 15-16, two brigades of black troops fought in the Battle of Nashville, help crush rebel troops. Black troop openned battle on the first day and engage the right of rebel line. Black brigades under Colonel Charles R. Thompson made ingenious charge up Overton Hill. 
1865  Jan. 11, Robert E. Lee made recommendation for arming slaves, after numerous defeats  
  Jan. 15, Black division under General Paine saw battle for the capture of Fort Fisher, N.C.-last Confederate fort 
  Jan. 17, General Lee made the statement it was "necessary" to have slave soldiers 
  Jan. 31, Thirteenth Amendment passed, ended slavery 
  Feb. 1, John S. Rock first African American to make arguments before the Supreme Court 
  Feb. 12, Henry Highland Garnet, first black person to preach before capitol on abolition of slavery 
  Feb. 18, capture of Charleston, SC, U.S.C.T and Fifty Fourth Massachusetts Volunteers assisted in capture 
  Mar. 3, Freedmen's Bureau formed to aid refugees and former slaves 
  Mar. 13, Jefferson Davis authorizes slave recruitment in Confederate army 
  Apr. 2, Second Brigade of Second Division of the black Twenty-fifth Corps among first to enter Petersburg 
  Apr. 3, Fifth Massachusetts Colored Cavalry and units of Twenty-fifth Corps was on the frontlines entering Richmond 
  Apr. 9, Fort Blakely, AL defense broken, 9 Black regiments of three brigades under General John Hawkins help smash defense 
  Apr. 3-9, Second Division of the black Twenty-fifth was one of the units that help chase Lee's army from Petersburg to Appomattox, when Confederates surrendered 
  Apr. 11, Lincoln recommends voting rights for black veterans and blacks who were "very intelligent" 
  Apr. 15, Lincoln dies  
  May 13, the Sixty-second U.S.C.T. fought last battle at White Ranch, Texas 
  Jul. 26, Patrick Francis Healy first African American to receive Ph.D, pass final exams at Louvain in Belgium 
  Sep. 6, Thaddeus Stevens, congressman urge the confiscation of Confederate leaders land to be distributed to former slave, each slave receiving 40 acres 
  Dec. 18, Thirteenth Amendment becomes part of the constitution 
  Dec. 18, white legislatures enact black codes in former rebel states
1866  Feb. 5-Thaddeus Stevens introduce bill to have president distribute land to ex-slaves in lots of 40 acres, defeated 126 to 37 
  Apr. 9-Civil Rights Bill passed, President's veto over-riden 
  -Edward G. Walker, Charles L. Mitchell elected to Massachusetts House of Representative, 1st blacks elected to US legislative body 
1867  -Jan. 8, Bill gives voting rights to African Americans in DC, President's Johnson's veto over-riden 
  -Feb. 7, Frederick Douglas leads delegation to White House requesting voting rights for slaves 
  -Feb.,Morehouse College (Da House) opens 
  -Mar. 2, Reconstruction Acts passed, divides Confederate territory into 5 military districts, called for constitutional college, ex-slaves given the right to vote  
  -Apr., First national meeting of the Klu Klux Klan Maxwell House, Nashville
  -May, the Knights of the White Camelia, white supremacist organization founded in Louisiana 
1868  -Feb. 23 William Edward Burghardt Du Bois born Great Barrington, Massachusetts 
  -Jun 13, Oscar J. Dunn elected Lieutenant governor of Louisiana, highest position held by blackman up to that date 
  -Blacks became lieutenant governor of Mississippi, South Carolina 
  -Jul. 28, Fourteenth Amendment becomes part of the constitution 
1870  -Black population at 4,880,009
  -Feb. 25-Hiram Revels, first African American in the Congress, senator from Mississippi  
  -Mar. 30, 15th Amendment becomes part of the constitution, gave African-Americans the right to vote
  -May 31, first set of Enforcement Acts, put elections in federal hands to protect black civil and political rights 
  -Jun. 26, James W. Wright enters West Point, first African American to do so, did not graduate 
  -Dec. 12, Joseph H. Rainey, first Black in the House of Representative 
1871  -Oct. 17 President Grant makes proclammation against KKK, habeas corpus suspended in nine counties in South Carolina
1872  -Feb. 27, Charlotte E. Ray, first African American woman lawyer, graduate from Howard University Law School
1873  -Nov. Richard T. Greene, first black graduate of Harvard, becomes professor of metaphysics at University of South Carolina
1874  -Mar. 11, Charles Sumner senator who aggressively defended black rights dies  
  -Apr. 27, the White League founded in Opelousas, La 
  -Aug. 26, sixteen African-Americans taken from jail and shot by hooded men 
  -Aug. 30, Coushatta Massacre, several blacks and Republican office holders killed
  -Dec. 7, Race riot in Vicksburg, Miss. thirty five African American killed 
  -Dec. 21 President declares anti-violence proclammation 
1875  -Mar. 1-Civil Rights Bill pass, giving equal rights to African Americans in public theaters, inns, restaurants 
  -Mar. 5, Blanche Kelso Bruce from Mississippi entered senate, only black person to serve full term during Reconstruction 
  -Jun. 2, James A. Healy gets consecrated, first African American Catholic Bishop 
  -Sep. 1, Race riot in Yazoo Miss. eight to twenty blacks and black Republicans killed
  -Sep. 4, Race riot in Clinton Miss. twenty to eighty blacks and black Republicans reported killed 
  -Sep. 8, Governor of Miss. requested troops to protect African Americans, request denied 
  -Nov. 2, Conservatives wins Mississippi election using the Mississippi Plan, using riots, political assassination, massacres, and social intimidation to undo Reconstruction policy-similiar plans were used to overthrow Reconstruction policy in South Carolina and Louisiana
1876  -Jul. 8, race riot Hamburg, SC , five African Americans killed  
  -Oct. 17, Rifle Clubs banned in South Carolina by presidential proclamation
  Oct. 26, Grant sends troops to South Carolina 
  -Nov. 9, troops sent to Tallahasse, Fl
  -Edward A. Bouchet received Phd in Physics from Yale, first African American to receive Phd from an American institution
1877 Feb. 26, at conference in Wormley Hotel in Washington, Southern representative promise support to Rutherford B. Hayes for president in return for removal of US troops in the South 
  Apr. 10, US troops removed from Columbia, SC , while Democrats with native white southern interest take over state government 
  Jun. 15, Henry O. Flipper graduates from West Point, first African American to do so 
1879  Exodus of 1879, African Americans fled political and economic exploitation in south 
1880  Black population at 6,580,793 
1881  Jul. Tuskegee Institute openned by Booker T. 
  Tennessee inaugurate Jim Crow by instituting separate accommodations in railroads cars for blacks and whites- Jim Crow spreads to other southern states
1883  Oct. 15, Supreme Court declares Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional 
1884  May 19, John Roy Lynch, first African American to preside over a major party political convention, he was elected temporary chairman of the Republican Party 
  Nov. 15, Berlin Conference, Scramble for Africa 
1886  Mar. 17, Carrollton Massacre in Carollton Miss. 20 African Americans killed 
1890  African American population at 7,488,676 
  Aug. 12-Nov. 1, Mississippi convention inaugurate purging blacks from political activities in the South Mississippi, ex. literacy test, disenfranchisement spread to other southern states. 
1893  Jul. 9, Dr. Daniel Hale Francis performs the first successful open heart surgery in Chicago Provident History 
1895  Feb. 20, Frederick Douglas dies Anacostia Heights, DC 
  Mar. 11-12 black laborers attack , troops called out 
  Sep. 18, Booker T. and the Atlanta Compromise 
1896  May 18, Plessy vs. Fergusson upheld separate but equal doctrine 
1898  Nov. 10, race riot in Wilmington North Carolina, eight African Americans killed 
  Jun. 24, American troops including the Tenth Cavalry drove Spanish troops out from position in La Guasimas, Cuba 
  Jul. 1, Tenth Cavalry made charge at El Caney, relieving Theodore's Roosevelt's Rough Riders; Four black regiments fought in
battle at Santiago. The all black Sixteenth was raised for battle. 
  -A Trip to Coontown by Bob Cole produced, first African American musical comedy
1900s   
1900  African American population at 8,833,994 (11.3% of the population) 
1901  Mar. 4 , George H. White last of Reconstruction congressman ends term   
  Oct. 16, Booker T. Washington dines at White House with Roosevelt, South was very critical
1903 Apr. 27, Supreme Court uphelds clause in Alabama Constitution, denying the vote to African Americans 
  Souls of Black Folks by W.E.B Dubois published, in opposition to Booker T.'s ideology
1905  Niagara Movement organize by Dubois and William Monroe Trotter at Niagara Falls 
1906  Aug. 13 Brownsvilled, Texas raided by black soldiers of 25th regiment after being insulted, one white man killed and two wounded. Roosevelt discharged 3 units of the 25 regiments.  
1908  Sep. 22-24, Atlanta race riots, ten African Americans killed and two whites killed. 
  Aug 14-19, race riots in Springfield, Ill. This leads to the founding of the NAACP 
  Dec. 26, Jack Johnson defeats Tommy Burns at Sydney, Australia becoming the Heavyweight Champion of the World 
1909  Feb. 12, NAACP founded 
  Apr. 6, Commander Robert E. Peary and African American assistant  Mathew H. Henson reached the North Pole 
1910  African American population at 9,827,763 
1912  Sept. 27, Memphis Blues by W.C. Handy , first published blues piece, went on sale 
1913  Mar. 10, Harriet Tubman dies 
1915  jun. 21, grandfather clause was struck down by Supreme Court 
  -2,000,000 African Americans moved out of the South seeking employment in the industrial North in the Great Migration 
  -NAACP protest movie Birth of A Nation 
  Sep. 9, Carter G. Woodson forms the Association for the study of Negro Life and History 
  Nov. 14, Booker T. Washington dies in Tuskegee, Ala. 
  -Ernest E. Just receives the first Spingarn Medal by the NAACP 
1916  Mar. 15, African American 10th Cavalry and 24th Infantry among forces that pursued Pancho Villa under Brigadier General John Pershing   
1917  East St. Louis race riots, 40 to 200 African Americans killed 
  Aug. 23,  race riots in Houston Texas between 24th infantry and white citizen, 2 African Americans killed, 17 whites killed, later 13 infantry soldiers were hanged
1918  Jul. 25-28, race riots in Chester, Pa -five killed
  Jul. 26-29, race riots in Philadelphia, Pa- four killed
  Nov. 11, World War I ends, 370,000 African American troops served and 1,400 commissioned officers, three African American regiments received the Croix de Guerre for valor(369th, 371st, 372nd regiments). The 369 was the first American unit to reach the Rhine. Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts were the first soldiers in the American Army to be decorated by France.
1919  Feb. 19-21, W.E.B. Dubois organizes first Pan-African Congress at Grand Hotel Paris
  -26 race riots during the summer of 1919 
1920  African American population at 10,463,131 or 9.9% of the US population 
  Harlem Renaissance, a period of great achievements in the arts and outpouring of creativity lead by Claude McKay, with contributions from Jean Toomer, Alain Locke, Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, James Weldon Johnson
  Aug. 1 Convention of Marcus Garvey's Universal Improvement Association opened in Liberty Hall 
1921  Jun. 1, Race Riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma --21 whites and 60 African Americans killed
  Phds awarded to the following black women for the first time: Eva B. Dykes (English), Sadie T. Mossell(Economics), 
Georgiana R. Simpson(German),
1922  Governor of Louisiana meets with President about KKK violence in state
1923  Sep. 15, Governor of Oklahoma declared martial law because of KKK activities 
  Oct. 24, during the previous twelve months 500,000 African Americans left the south 
1924  Fletcher Henderson, first musician to make name with Jazz big band, opens in Roseland Ballroon on Broadway 
1925  Louis Armstrong records first of Hot Five and Hot Seven Recordings, influenced the direction of Jazz 
1927  Mar. 7, Supreme Court knock down laws barring African Americans from voting in "white" primaries 
  Dec. Marcus Garvey deported as undesirable alien 
1929 Jan. 15, Martin Luther King is born in Atlanta, Ga 
  "Jobs-For-Negroes" begins in Chicago, picketing stores on the south side. The "Spend Your Money Where You Can Work" campaign spread to La, Cleveland, NY, and continued throughout the Depression 
1930  Black population at 11,891,143 or 9.7% of the population 
1931  Scottsboro Case, 9 black youths accused of raping 2 white females 
1935 Swing Era begins, era of big bands represented by Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Count Basie 
  Dec. 5, National Council of Negro Women founded 
1936  Aug. 9, Jesse Owens wins Gold Medal in Berlin Olympics 
1937  Mar. 26, William H. Hastie becomes the first federal judge, judge of the Federal District Court of the Virgin Islands 
1938  Nov. 8, Crystal Bird Fauset elected to the Pennsylvannia House of Representative, first woman legislator 
1939  Jane Matilda Bolin, first woman judge, Judge of Court of Domestic Relations in New York,  
1940  Black population at 12,865,518 
  Benjamin Oliver Davis is made Brigadier General, first black general in the entire history of the army 
1941  Jan. 16, War Department plans formation of an all black Army Air Corps squadron 
  Jan. 26, mass movement held in 24 states to protest discrimination in the war effort 
  Charles Drew setup plasma bank in Presbyterian Hospital in NY, engaging in pioneering research that saved millions of lives 
  Jun. 25, Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802 bans religious discrimination in war industry, government training programs and industries 
  Jul. 10, First army flying schools for blacks established at Tuskegee 
  Dec. 7, Dorie Miller, USS Arizona, downed four enemy planes in attack on Pearl Harbor, awarded Navy Cross 
1942  Mar. 7 Tuskegee graduates its first group of flying students
  Jun. 18 Bernard W. Johnson, first African American to win a commission in the US Navy, made ensign in Naval Reserve  
1943Jun. national CORE(Congress of Racial Equality) organized
 Sep. 29,  Booker T. Washington launched ,commanded by Hugh Mulzac, first merchant ship commanded by a black person
 Jul. 2, Lt. Charles Hall becomes the first black pilot to shoot down a German plane 
1944 Apr. 24, United Negro College Fund incorporated 
1947 Apr. 10, Jackie Robinson joins Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first black member of a team of organized baseball 
 Oct. 23, NAACP petition the world via the United Nations for racial justice in America  
1948 Feb. 12, Lt. Nancy Leftenant becomes the first African American in the Army Nurse Corps. 
 Jul. 26, Executive Order 9981 issued by Truman, mandating equality of opportunity and treatment in the armed forces
 Oct. 1, California supreme court concludes the state anti interracial mariage laws unconstitutional 
1949 Jan. 18, William L. Dawson becomes head of House Expenditure Committee-First African American to head a congressional standing committee 
 Jun. 3, Wesley L. Brown becomes first African American to graduate from Annapolis Naval Academy 
 Oct. 3, WERD opens in Atlanta, becomes the first African American owned radio station