Timeline of African History



 Americas  Europe  Africa  Africa  Asia  Asia
13.7 billion years ago universe formed

4.54 billion years ago  earth formed

245 -66 million years ago
Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age
13.7 billion years ago universe formed

4.54 billion years ago  earth
formed

245 -66 million years ago
Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age
 
13.7 billion years ago universe formed

4.54 billion years ago  earth formed

245 -66 million years ago Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age

60 million
years ago Africa formed from tectonic movement out of Gondwanaland
7-5 million years ago Homonines (hominidae--modern humans are the only surviver and members) line diverge from gorillas and chimpanzees


13.7 billion years ago universe formed

4.54 billion years ago  earth
formed

245 -66 million years ago
Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age




25 million
years ago Hominoids developed in Africa
6 million Orrorin tugenensis Kapsomin, Kenya
4.2 to 3.9 million Australopithecus anamensis
2.3 to 1.6 million Homo habilis ,Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
1.8 to 0.3 million Homo erectus
13.7 billion years ago universe formed

4.54 billion years ago  earth
formed

245 -66 million years ago
Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age
 13.7 billion years ago universe formed

4.54 billion years ago  earth
formed

245-66 million years ago
Dinosaur Age or Mesozoic Age
  700,000-170,000 Denisovian evolve

250,000-Neanderthals evolve 
200,000-100,000 BP Homo sapiens
200,000-100,000 BP
Hominims began to develop modern human anatomical parts

160,000  Bouri and Omo Kibish (Ethiopia) are the earliest site of Early Modern humans (EMH)

100,000-50,000 BP Development in vocal anatomy, that can replicate human speech   700,000-170,000 Denisovian evolve in Melanasia 700,000-170,000 Denisovian evolve in Melanasia
    90,000 to 60,000 BP , Humans develop intellect and social ability        
  40,000 BP modern humans enter Europe

40,000 Denisovians extinct

35,000 neanderthals extinct



16,000 Khoisan linguistic family 60,000 to 50,000 BP(Before Present) Modern humans leave Africa to populate the world


40,000 BP modern human in northern Eurasia

40,000 Denisovians extinct

35,000 Neandertnhals extinct
40,000 BP modern human in northern Eurasia 

40,000 Denisovians extinct

35,000 neanderthals extinct 
15,000 BP Humans in America 

10,000 bp cassava domesticated in Brazil 


12,700-10,900 BCE expansion of the three major linguistic group--Afroasiatic, Niger-Congo , and Nilo-Saharan -Sahara is wet, green, and occupied by lakes   10,000 wheat domesticated 

10,000 sugarcane domesticated in New Guinea
 
8000 potato domesticated in Peru
c 8000 Yam domestication in West Africa and Sorghum domesticated in the Sahel region
7000 Kerman settlement founded
c 6700-5500 teff and finger millet domesticated by Cushitic speakers in Ethiopian highland


7000 and 6500 Nabta Playa stone structures
5000 Sahara begins drying up, movement to the Nile 
5000 Cotton domesticated in Middle Nile Basin in eastern Sahel
4600-4000 Donkey domesticated, oldest domesticated remains at the site of El-Omari,  in Upper Egypt near Cairo

6000 Proto-Indo European in Anatolia or 4,000 BC in  Pontic-Caspian steppe

4800 horse domesticàted
c. 6000 oldest known cotton fiber, Mehrgarh, Pakistan 
4000-3001 BCE 
4000 corn domesticated 
4000-3000 BCE black eyed peas, gourd, and voandzeia(Bambara groundnuts) domesticated
3800 A-Group
3500 Sacral polities populate the Nile
4000-3100 Pre-dynastic Period (Naqada)
4000-3500
Naqada I
3500-3200 Naqada II

4000 Uruk founded

3500 cuneiform
 
    3400 Ta-Seti, 1st Nubian State, centered@Qustul
3400-3200 Ta-Seti most powerful Kingdom of the Nile, controls Upper Egypt
3200-3000 Naqada III    
           
    3125-3100 Aha destroys Ta-Seti  3150 Menes unites Egypt
3150 earliest Hieroglyphs
3100 First Dynasty of Egypt 
   
3000-2001 BCE
2750 Aspero site  3000-2200 Early Minoan Civilization on Crete In Mediterranean Europe
3000 Sacral kingdoms dot the Nubian Nile,  Sai and Kerma prominent Kingdoms  
3000 Early Kerma Period
3000 C Group Culture
3000 start of the Bantu Expansion
3000
Guinea fowl domesticated --N meleagris galatea
2800 papyrus invented
2700 Old Kingdom

2800 Sumerian Dynastic period

ca 2600 camel domesticated in Iran
 
    2600 Snefru invades Nubia,  2589-2566 Great Pyramid of Giza     
        2370 Akkadian Empire
(Afroasiatic-semitic) 
2500 Indus Harappan Civilization founded 
  2200-1500 Middle Minoan 
1600 Minoan Civilization at peak
2055 Egypt controls Lower Nubia
2055-1650 Middle Kerma Period
2055-Kerma controls Upper Nubia, Upper Nubia called Kush for first time, not Yam,-Kerma viewed as threat by Egypt  
2200 1st Intermediate Period
2025 Amunemhet I-
2025 Middle Kingdom
2055 Egypt builds giant forts in 2nd and 3rd cataract  
2125 Sumerian Ur dominates 

2100 Ziggurat of Ur built


2205-1766 Hsia Dynasty of China
2000-1001 BCE 
  2000-1700 Greek speaking tribes enter Greece



c. 1900 Tichitt Civilization stone towns founded
1700-1550
Classic Kerma
1800 Bantu Expansion reaches Gabon
1700-1601 building of the Deffufa 
1650 Kerma gains control of Lower Nubia, rules Upper/Lower Nubia
1900 Wadi el-Hol Inscriptions developed from hieroglyphs
1782-1574 Second Intermediate Period
1700
Hyksos invasion and rule of Delta, Lower Egypt-Horse, chariot , bronze


1766-1050 Shang Dynasty
1766-Chinese writing


1800 Aryan invades NW India
  1800-1400 Stonehenge built

1600-1200 Mycenaean Civilization in the Mediterranean

1500-1000 Late Minoan
1500 BC-1401 BC Linear A Script

1400 Mycenaean 
Civilization becomes dominant in Aegean

1400 BC-1301 BC  Linear B Script
1600-1570 Kerma invades/sacks Egypt
1520-1530 Thutmose I destroys Kingdom of Kerma, Kerma becomes colony of Egypt, beginning Egyptianization of Nubia
1500-1100Late Kerma
1600 Bantu Expansion reaches Congo Forest
1570-1070
BCE New Kingdom ,
Egypt expands territory--Nubia, Levant
1567-1085 reign of King Tut
1479 Hatshepsut assume throne for thutmosis III
1350 Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) assumes throne, monotheism in Egypt 
1600 Proto-Sinaitic developed 

1500 Hittite Empire,
iron working discovered

1400-605 Assyrian Empire
  (Afroasiatic-semitic)

1500-200 Olmec Civilization     
   
  c 1200 sack of Troy--Trojan war ,Legendary Ethiopian King Memnon is reported to have sent black soldiers to fight against the Greeks

1100-750 Greek Dark Age
 
  1070-525 Third Intermediate 
1070-715 Libyan Dynasty
950 Sheshonq I, a Libyan, 22nd dynasty

1200 Phoenician ascendancy
(Afroasiatic-semitic)

1025 Hebrew Kingdom
(Afroasiatic-semitic)
 
1050-256 Chou Dynasty




1000-1 BCE
900 Olmec writing

800-200 Chavin de Huantar civilization 
800 Greek Alphabet

800 Etruscan Civilization in the Mediterranean

753 Rome founded

750-500 Greek City States

700-600 Roman Alphabet
1000 African Rice -- oryza glaberrima --domesticated in Niger River bend
800
Carthage founded by Queen Dido in present day Tunisia
790 Nok Culture

760 Kashta receives mandate from the Priestess of Amun to conquer Egypt
747-716 Piye conquers upper Egypt
716-702 Shabaqo conquers all of Egypt, 25th Dynasty
700-500 Kingdom of Damot founded
700-400 Pre-Aksumite
300-201 Rise of Aksum as most important Ethiopian state, demise of Damot
700-500 Ge'ez Abugida Script 
883-859 Neo-Assyrian Empire
(Afroasiatic-semitic)

700 Assyrians begin using iron technology 
 
500 Mayan writing  500-338 Classical Greek  600s Punic Script differentiates from Phoenician Script
520 Himilco sails North African Atlantic coast

520-470 Hanno of Carthage sails west African coast, possibly reached Cameroon
500–400 Formation of Berber Kingdoms: Mauritania in the west, Massaessyles in the center, and Massyles in the east.
500 Nok iron making established
500-401 Carthage dominant power in western Mediterranean
400-200 Tichit Walata abandoned
663 Assyrians conquer Egypt
600 Pharaoh Necho II authorizes Phoenicians to sail Red Sea to circumnavigate Africa 
525 Persia invades Egypt, first camels in Egypt
500 Capital of Kush becomes Meroe(Kingdom of Meroe),Meroe becomes center of iron making
400-50 Proto-Aksumite

600 Zoroaster is born

583 Budha is born

550-335 Persian Achaemenid Period
(Persian Empire)
 
  334 Alexander the Great embarks on his great conquest  300s Tifinagh Abjad Script
250
Thriving market town of Jenne


332 Alexander conquers Egypt, Ptolemy rule Egypt, Alexandria becomes capital of Egypt 
321-185 Mauryan Empire (India) 
300-800 Teotihuacan civilization    264-146 Punic Wars
237 Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal) begins conquest of Iberia for Carthage
220 Iberia becomes part of the Carthaginian Empire
218 Hannibal crosses the Alps amassing numerous victories against Rome
146 Carthage defeated in Punic Wars, becomes Roman province of Africa
100 Camels being used increasingly in trans-Saharan trade

 
200 Meroitic Abugida Script, Nubians cease using Hieroglyphic Script
50-150 Early Aksumite
31 Rome captures Egypt in Battle of Actium, Egypt Roman province
24 bc Kushite military lead by Kandake Amanirenas defeats Roman military at Aswan, Philae, and Elephantine initiating stalemate war with Rome to 21 bc
21 bc Kandake Amanirenas makes treaty with Roman Emperor Augustus, favorable to Kushite Meroitic Kingdom in trade and political concession
221-642 Sasaniad Period of Persia 

c. 6 BCE-30 CE Jesus Christ is born
256 Ch'in Dynasty
Great Wall started

221-206 compass invented in China

206-8 Han Dynasty-

According to Chinese scholars, Han Dynasty in contact with Kush and Axum

150 Kushan Kingdom
1 CE-1000 CE
100-800 Mayan civilization

200-800 Moche and Nazca culture 
96-180 Pax Romana
aqueducts, roads built

193-211 Septimius Severus-Berber Roman emperor

217-218 Marcus Opellius Macrinus, Berber Roman Emperor

324-337 Reign of Emperor Constantine
(Unified Rome)

312 Constantine of Rome converts to Christianity

392 Christianity official Roman Religion

450 Germanic tribes Jutes, Angles, Saxons invade England, beginning of the English

476 Rome falls
 
1-200 Banana, coconut, taro (cocoyam) from Asia introduced into Africa by Malay
1-100 Bantu Expansion reaches Indian Ocean
1-100 Rhapta earliest trade port in Tanzania
101-200 Malays/Bantu speaking slaves inhabiting Madagascar
200 End of Nok Culture
300 Kingdom of Ghana 
350-550 Ballana dominates Lower Nubia , Nubia divided into three Kingdom--Makouria, Nobatia, and Alodia
429 Invasion of Africa by the Vandals
596 The fall of the Vandals
100 Christianity enters the Maghreb
101-150
Christianity in Egypt

101-200 King Gadarat conquers Yemen
200-400 Axum builds Stelaes
200-101 Coptic Alphabet in use
312 Donatist schism begins
333 Christianity(monophysite) state religion of Axum, cross symbol of state
350 Ezana sacks Kingdom of Meroe 
201-300 Axum starts minting coins
518 Axumite invades Himyar
525 Axumites invade Himyar and remains
570 Axumites removed from southern Arabia by Sasaniad Persian Empire
550-1400 Nubia becomes Christian, Nubian Christian Period
300s Arabic Script in use 
(Afroasiatic-semitic)


25-220 2nd Han Dynasty 

105 Ts´ai Lun invents paper

200 Kushan Kingdom ends

320 Gupta Kingdom

500 Hindus invent number system in India

500 sugar is crystallized in India
  527-565 Justinian Emperor

600-1500 Middle Age 
601-700 Songhay State founded@Gao with capital@Kukya
640 Egypt under Islamic control
651-652 the Baqt Treaty between  muslim Egypt and Christian Nubia
600-630 Last Aksumite minted coin
615 Muslims given refuge in Aksum, possibly by Armah or father Ellah Tsaham, First Hijra
640 beginning decline of trade and Axum, as Islam spread, muslim cease using Red Sea, detours to Persian Gulf

570-632 Muhammad is born

600-1200 Islamic Golden Age of Science


661-750 Ummayyad rule muslim world @Damascus 
581-618 Sui Dynasty

618-907 Tang Dynasty

604 Japanese State formed
  733/734 Charles Martel thwart muslim expansion in Europe @Battle of Tours  700 Nobatia becomes part of Makouria
701-800 Old Nubian Alphabet created in Nobatia, based on Coptic Alphabet
701 North Africa(Ifriqiya) under Islamic control
717 Iberia conquered by muslims
 
750-1258 Abbasid rule muslim world @Baghdad
 
 
800-1400 Chimu Empire  800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor

800s First record of written Dutch(Old Franconian), Laws of the Salic Franks, Psalms

800s First record of written Portuguese

842 AD First record of written French Strasbourg Oaths

1000 First record of written Spanish Glosas Emilianenses

1000-1300 High Middle Ages


 
800 Islam enters West Africa
800 Ife founded, center of Yoruba culture 
800 Kanem-Bornu founded
800 Ghana is recorded by al Farazzi
800 Swahilis start building towns (mji)-Kilwa c. 800, Pate c. 900, Mombasa c. 1000 , 

800-1400 Building of Benin Walls
900 Igbo-Ukwu brass making
969-1171 Fatimid Caliphate 
999 Sarki (king) Bogoda becomes first king of Kano 
869   Zanj Rebellion

869   Zanj Rebellion spread to west Iran, town of Ahwaz captured

1095-1099 First Crusade 
800s chinese gunpowder

960-1279 Song Dynasty 

900s increased African trade with China, Chinese artifact dot African east coast, slaves, rhinoceros horns, exported

1001-2000 CE
 1400 Aztec Kingdom

1400 Inca

1492  Afro-Spanish ,Pedro Alonzo Nino-navigator of Santa Maria Columbus's ship
1054 split of Roman church and Byzantium church

1066 Norman conquest of England

1150s Geomancy introduce to Spain by Hugo of Santalla from Arabs,based on African sand divination

1215 Magna Carta

1237 Mongols invade Russia

1300-1500 Later Middle Ages

1347-1350 Black Death

1350-1550 Renaissance

1337-1453 Hundred Years War came to an end 

1429-1430 Joan of Arc

1450-1600 750,000 Africans shipped out of Africa, mainly Portuguese 
1000s Earliest West African Arabic Script ajami from tomb inscription in Gao
1000s Swahili Script(Kiarabu) in use from tomb inscription and coins-Arabic Script in use in African east coast
1000 Mapungubwe founded
1010 Songhay converts to Islam, under early rule Dia Kossoi
1050 Banu Hilal Arabs invade the Maghrib
1061-1147 Almoravid Empire(Morocco & Spain)
1076 Almoravids attack Ghana, takes capital Kumbi Saleh
1087 Ghana Empire falls
1150s Geomancy introduce to Spain by Hugo of Santalla from Arabs,based on African sand divination
1100 Timbucktu founded
1230 Sundiata defeated Sumanguru at the Battle of Karina, Mali Empire
1300 founding of Wolof State
1301-1400 Luba Kingdom was founded by the Nkongolo Dynasty
1310 Mansa Abubakari II embarks on voyage to new world
1324 Mansa Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca
1375 Songhay state breaks from Mali
1450 Mulopwe Chibunda Ilunga founded a new Lunda Dynasty
1400s Bito Luo Clan claims Kitara Empire succesion, founding the Bunyoro Kingdom
1464 Sunni Ali founded Songhay Empire
1493 Askia the Great assumes the throne of Songhay
1401-1500 Maravi Kingdom founded, with the Phiri Clan marrying into the Banda Clan of the Nyanja
1425 Mutota, Shona king founded Mutapa Empire 


1000 Formation of Yoruba cities and towns in present day Nigeria
1150-1270 Zagwe Dynasty in Abyssinia
1147-1289 Almohad Empire(Maghreb & Spain)
1169 Saladin made commander of Egyptian army
1171-1250 Ayyubid Empire in Egypt
1250-1517 Mamluk Empire in Egypt
1200 Ancestors of the Akan begin to move to present day Ghana
1204 Christian Nubia joins with Christian Crusaders from Europe to fight muslims@Constantinople , Fourth Crusade
1232 Muslims diminished in Spain only muslim Granada remains till 1492
1260 Battle of Ain Jalut, Mamluk stops Mongol expansion into Africa
1268 Nubian Christian King Dawud II forced to pay muslim baqt tribute
1270-1550 Solomonid Dynasty in Abyssinia
1276 Nubian Christian Kingdom sacked by Mamluk Egypt
1300 Yorubas produce terracotta, brass heads including Ife heads
1317 first muslim mosque in Christian Nubia
1331 baqt tribute re-instated by Mamluk Egypt on Nubia, Christianity on the decline in Nubia
1395 Kongo Kingdom founded, most powerful in west central Africa
1400 Bono-Manso founded by Asaman, becomes the first Akan empire
1400 Prince Oranimiyan assume Benin throne
1400 Nupe State founded
1450 Oba Ewuare assume the Benin throne , engage in massive expansion of Empire
1204 Fourth Crusade, Constantinople captured 

1270 Seventh Crusade and last

1200s Silk Road
1021-1086 Wang Anshi

1100s African slaves being imported in the ports of southern India--the Deccan etc.


1127-1279 Southern Song Dynasty

1206 Ghengis Khan comes to power

1221 Invasion of northern India by Mongols

1236-1240 Jamal al-Din Yaqut, a royal courtier in the kingdom of Delhi, favorite of Queen Radiyya

1279 Mongols conquer China, Kublai Khan, Yuan Dynasty

1369-1644 Ming Dynasty

1415 Admiral Zhen He visits the Sultan of Kilwa, increase chinese trade with East African coast under Ming Dynasty 

1486-1493 Habshi slave soldiers took over Bengal kingdom, lead by Barbak Shah, rules the Bengal kingdom to 1493

1521 1st slave revolt in New World in Hispaniola, initiated by Wolof slaves and slaves from Senegambian coast-

1532 first slaves ships in Brazil

1619 First African American slaves in Jamestown, Virginia (British America)


1519 Magellan´s expedition 
around the world--completed in 1522--18 survivors from 260, one ship from five

1520 Martin Luther's ideas take off, Protestant Reformation

1648 Treaty of Westphalia, French ascendancy in Europe and Spanish decline

1601-1700 2.5 mil Africans shipped across the Atlantic

1687 Newton´s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica



1500s maize(corn) and cassava introduced in Africa by Portuguese
1500s Wadai Kingdom founded
1501-1600 Bunyoro Kingdom most powerful in Great Lakes
1519 Tarik al-Fattash by Mahmud Kati is composed
1550 Mali Empire greatly diminished, now just a state
1550 Rise of Oyo Empire
1550 European sea merchants establish trading partnership with African coastal states
1559 Tengeli Koli and Mandinka-Fulani soldiers took over Takrur
1591 Kingdom of Morocco invades Songhay Empire
1625 Dahomey founded
1630 Dahomey becomes vassal of Oyo
1600-1650  Kalonga Masula engaged in expansion of the Maravi Confederacy
1650 Massassi Dynasty and Kaarta Kingdom founded by Massa
1517 Ottoman Turks conquer Egypt
1571 Mais Idris Alooma embarked on expansion and innovation in Kanem Bornu
1568 The Jaga attack Kongo Kingdom
1596 Suleiman Solong founded the Keira Dynasty, unifying all rival tribes, converts Darfur to Islam
1600 Mwami Ruganzu Ndori founded Kingdom of Rwanda
1600-1700 Lozi Kingdom founded
1600 Funj convert to Islam, began living in towns, and established the Funj Sultanate
1636 Kabaka Katerega beginning expansion of the Buganda Kingdom
1657 Ntari Rushatsi founded Burundi Kingdom
1695 Osei Tutu takes throne of Asante and with priest Okomfo Anokye, engaged in massive expansion of Asante Empire
1628 Mavura, a Portuguese puppet rules Mutapa
1684-1696 Changamire Dombo expelled the Portuguese from Mutapa and Manyika
1517 black eunuchs being shipped to Crimean Khanate

1595
 black eunuch is administrator for Medina/Mecca mosque under Ottoman control

1617 Mustafa Agha thwarts Osman's right to the Ottoman throne

1648 Süleyma Agha secures Mehmed IV to the Ottoman throne
1526-1857 Mughal Empire founded by Babur

1546 Blacks arrive in Japan with Portuguese captain Jorge Alvarez for first time, might be older via China

1600 Malik Ambar comes to power in the Deccan--Ahmadnagar Sultanate

1603-1867 Tokugawa Shogunate

1620-1825 Siddis rule Kingdom of Janjira




1791 Haitian Revolution initiated by slaves from the Congo/Angola region 

1794 Cotton Gin invented
1700s the Enlightenment

1701-1800 6.5 mil Africans shipped across, mainly English ships

1704 Abram Hannibal sold to czar Peter the Great

1760 the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain

1769 steam engine invented

1789 the French Revolution
1701 Battle of Feyiase, Denkyirahene Ntim Gyakari was defeated by the Asante Kingdom, beginning Asante dominance
1750 Awura Poku and followers leave the Asante Empire founding the Baoule in Ivory Coast, after dynastic dispute 
1725 Futa Jalon founded by mujaddadin, "revivers of Islam" 
1712 Mamari Kulibali revives Segu Empire by overcoming Bambara opposition  1779-1924 Shah Qajar founded Qajar Dynasty of Persia  1700s Siddis rule Kingdom of Sachin
1804 Dessaline declares Haiti an independent black Republic, the 2nd republic after the USA

1861 Gatlin Gun invented-US

1865 13th Amendment ends slavery in all USA territory

1883 Maxim Gun invented -USA

1888 Golden Law ends slavery in Brazil



1801 Achard opens first sugar beet refinery in Prussia

1802 Napoleon absolute ruler of France

1833 British Emancipation Act, ends slavery

1837-1901 Reign of Queen Victoria in Britain

1848 Slavery abolished, finally, in all French territories

1859 Charles Darwin publishes the Origins of Species

1863 Netherlands bans slavery in all her territories

1870s Social Darwinism spreads throughout Europe, North America, and Latin America

1870 Moret Law ends slavery in Spain & colony(Cuba, PR)

1877 Portugal ends slavery

1878 Germany becomes the largest producer of sugar in the world

1884 Berlin Conference, Scramble for Africa

1884 eugenics ideology formed


1808 Hausaland conquered by Usman Dan Fodio, Sokoto Caliphate
1806 Battle of Abora Asante defeats Fante military
1814 British at Anomabu recognize Asante sovereignty after fort seizure 
1820 Asante reigns supreme in Gold Coast
1834 Ndebele enters Zimbabwe plateau, escaping
defiqane and Zulu wars
1850s the Lozi Kingdom was invaded by the Kololo, who took over the kingdom
1852 Al Hajj Umar begins Jihad, in formation of the Tukulor Empire
1864 the Lozi aristocracy overthrows the Kololo and regained power
1864 Umar Tal or Al Hajj Umar of Tukulor Empire dies in battle
1884 Berlin Conference, Scramble for Africa
1897 Benin defeated by British
1805-06 Mungo Park explores and documents Niger River
1818 Shaka became head of the Mthethwa Empire, begining of the Zulu Empire
1823-25 Denham and Clapperton explores and documents Bornu and Hausaland
1827-28 Rene Caillie documents Rio Nunez  to Timbuktu to Tangiers
1828 Shaka assassinated by Dingane
1830-1840s Great Trek of Boers
1830 French occupy Algiers
1830 Lander brothers explores and  documents the Lower Niger
1832 Rise of Ab Al-Kadir against the French in Algeria 
1835 Darfur conquers Wadai
1847-49 Krapf and Rebmann documents Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya
1860-1872 Karl Mauch document the Zimbabwe plateau
1862-1869 Gerhard Rohlfs documents the North African Sahara
1867 Muhammad Ali establish Egypt as independent province in the Ottoman Empire and himself hereditary ruler with title of Khedive
1869 Suez Canal completed
1870-1874 Gustav Nachtigal documented the Sudan between Lake Chad and the Nile
1879 the Battle of Isandlwana, British forces were defeated by the Zulu Empire 
1881 Tunisia protectorate of France
1896 Ethiopia defeats Italy@the Battle of Adawa




 
1828 Treaty of Turkmanchai makes Iran dependent on african slaves

1889 Turkey abolishes slavery



1831 beginning recruitment of the Belanda HItam by Dutch East India Company

1839 Opium War begins

1842 Treaty of Nanking British takes Hong Kong

1858 British Empire takes complete control of India 

1868  Meiji Restoration
1945 Manhattan Project, Trinity first atomic bomb-US 

1969 Neil Armstrong sets foot on the moon
 1905 Einstein publishes the Theory of Special Relativity- Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper bei den Annalen ein and Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?

1917-1991 Soviet Republic

1922 Stalin comes to power

1914-1918 World War I

1939-1945 World War II

1961 first man in space, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vostok I
1900 Asante defeated by British
1903 Sokoto defeated by British
1955 Bandung Conference, conference of African and Asian countries
 1920 Slavery ended in Iraq

1928
 Slavery abolished in Iran


1955
 Bandung Conference, conference of African and Asian countries
1949 Mao Zedong comes to power

1955 Bandung Conference, conference of African and Asian countries