Timeline of Afro-Brazilian History



   
Date  Events 
   
1532 sugarcane introduced in Brazil 
1538  First known shipment of slaves to Brazil
1580  Brazil is number one sugar producer in the world 
1600  -sex ratio for slaves in Bahia was 3 men to 2 female, sometimes 2 to 1 until 1830  
  -Between 1600-1850 slave population decreased from 1.5% to 3% per year;During the 1600s, an average of 5,600 slaves imported per year
1605  Palmares Quilombo in Pernambuco, present day Alagoas state, founded by runaway slaves
1612  Alexandre de Moura, captain of Pernambuco, makes request to form capitão de campo(bush captain) or capitão de mato to retrieve runaway slaves and fight quilombos/mocambos in the eight parishes. Quilombos is the dominant term in Minas Gerais. Mocambos is the predominant term in Bahia.
1676  capitão de campo(bush captain) or capitão de mato in full service to capture runaway slaves; usually comprised of twenty indians; worked on commission; the system spread to the rest of Brazil.
1624  Dutch invades Brazil
1633  Henrique Dias joins military to remove the Dutch threat in Pernambuco in northern Bahia, he was later made fidalgo or first nobleman, first black person to be so honored
1640 Dutch invades Palmares Quilombo 
1654  Dutch retreates from Brazil 
1680  Between 1680-1750, half of all slaves freed in Bahia, purchased their own freedom or were purchased by relatives
1690  Gold rush in Minas Gerais 
1694 Palmares Quilombo, in Pernambuco, present day Alagoas state, invaded and conquered, Zumbi betrayed, captured, and decapitated
1708  The São Francisco Church and Convent of Salvador (Convento e Igreja de São Francisco) built by slave labor
1729  Diamond discovered in Diamantina, Minas Gerais 
1730  Antônio Francisco Lisboa(mulatto), father of Brazilian rococo sculpture is born in Ouro Preto 
1752  Rosa Maria Egipcíaca da Vera Cruz publishes, Teologia Do Amor de Deus, Luz Brilhante Das Almas Preregrinas(The Sacred Theology of God's Love, Bright Light of the Pilgrim Soul), the first black woman to be published 
1755 Indian slavery outlawed
1770  Capoeira is first mentioned in print
1789 Slaves on sugar plantation Engenho Santana in Ilhéus, south of Bahia revolts, runaway and formed quilombo
1800s
1809 -Aja-Fon and Yoruba from Bahia slaves formed quilombo, controlled village of Nazare for months 
  -Between 1809-1835 twenty slave revolts
1810  A total of 2.5 million slaves had arrived in Brazil  
1816 José Maurício Nunes Garcia (mulatto), Father of Brazilian Music, composes Requiem Mass
1822 Brazil breaks from Portugal-Pedro I declares himself emperor of Brazil
1826 Zeferina Revolt, attacks Bahia, Zeferina claimed to be Nâgo (Yoruba) and was from the Urubu Quilombo, who worshipped Shango from the Oyo Empire
1832  the Society for the Protection of the Needy founded in Bahia, free black men raise fund to purchase slaves 
1835  Malé Revolt -revolt by muslim slaves in Bahia of Yoruba ancestry, 500 slaves took part , revolt had a jihadist overtone
1838  Revolt of Manuel Congo in Rio de Janeiro 
1850  -Queiroz Law abolishes the slave trade, under strong British pressure 
  -Life expectancy for slaves in Bahia was 23 versus 35 for slaves in the United States
1851  Manuel Raimundo Querino is born 
1854 The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America , only narrative of an African born slave in Brazil
1859  Maria Fermina Dos Reis from Manranhão first woman novelist publishes Ursula, anti-slavery abolition literature 
1864  Diabo Coxo(Lame Devil) anti-slavery journal is published 
1870  -War of Triple Alliance--capoeira used in warfare-Zuavos Battalion was made up of entirely capoeiristas
  -Antônio Carlos Gomes performs Il Guarana at Scala Opera in Italy,  Gomes was master of Brazilian Opera 
  -scientific racism begins to take root and notions of white supremacy among the Brazilian elites and Latin America
1871  Law of Free Wombs(Lei do Ventre Livre) frees all children born of slave mothers 
1880  -Abolition movement intensifies activities, especially in the Northeast, sugar region. Economically sugar industry begins to diminish in importance, but coffee economy begins to take off.
  -Statesman Joaquim Nabuco(white) and André Rebouças organized Sociedad Brasileira Contra a Escravidão(Brazil Anti-Slavery Society). Joaquim Nabuco's essay about the beating of slaves, lead to the passage of laws forbidding the punishment. Slaves rebel abandoning the plantation, leading to the passage of the Golden Law (Lei Áurea), which emancipated all slaves in Brazil  
1881  José Carlos Do Patrocinio(mulatto) bought the Gazeta De Tarde, the most anti-slavery, abolition paper in Brazil. José Carlos Do Patrocinio is credited with influencing Princess Isabel into signing Lei Áurea
1883  -Politician Joaquim Nabuco publishes O abolicionismo(the Abolition) 
  -André Rebouças, publishes Agricultura Nacional, which argued for land distribution and education for freed slaves 
1884  -Mar. São Paulo provincial government sets aside 400,000 milreis to pay travel cost of European immigrants to be funded by tax on slaves. 
  -Ceará becomes first state to completely free slaves
1886  -Law was passed forbidding the beating of slaves, after essay by Joaquim Nabuco; the law is credited with slaves abandoning slave plantation, resulting in chaos in the country. The army was unable to bring events under control. 
  -The private organization, Society for the Promotion of Immigration uses state funds for running campaigns to recruit Europeans to São Paulo to work in coffee plantations
1885  Saraiva Cotegipe Law(Sexagenarian Law) frees all slaves at the age of sixty 
1888  May 13,  1888, the Golden Law (Lei Áurea) ends slavery,José Carlos Do Patrocinio is credited with influencing Princess Isabel into signing Lei Áurea--White elites embrace policy of whitening and subsidizing European immigration 
1889 Nov 15, First Republic is formed-dominated by white elite plantocracy, ex-slave holders
1890  Between 1890-1914, 1.5 million Europeans immigrated to São Paulo with the majority having their passage paid for by the state government 
1891  -Constitution of 1891 bans immigration of Africans and Asians(exception of Japanese and Middle Easterners), in support of whitening 
  -Rui Barbosa destroys slave records on Afro-Brazilians making it difficult to determine point of origin 
1895  The Redemption of Cain is painted, illustrate whitening 
1899  Chiquinha Gonzaga writes the first song intended for carnival, Ô Abre Alas(Hey Make Way)
1900s   
1911  Joao Baptista de Lacerda elaborates on whitening ideology at the First Universal Race Congress,"in the course of the next century the mixed bloods will have disappeared from Brazil. This will coincide with the extinction of the black race in our midst."  
1914  Mar. 1914 Abdias do Nascimento is born 
1916  First song, Pelo Telefono with the name Samba is registered by Donga, Samba artist
1918 Manuel Raimundo Querino publishes African Contribution to Brazilian Civilization,(O Colono Prêto Como Fator da Civilação Brasileiro), first historical study of Afro-Brazilians, lone voice against whitening ideology
  -1920s attempts at suppression of traditional African religions by employing police raids 
1922  -Pixinghuinha(King of Samba) and band Oito Batutas , which included Donga, tours Europe, exposing Europe to Brazilian music, Rio's white upper class was outraged that a black band represented Brazilian music on a European stage for the first time.
  -Hermes Fontes(mulatto) publishes Lâmpada Velada represents transition to symbolism 
  -Mário de Andrade lead Modernism artistic movement 
1923  Manuel Raimundo Querino dies 
1926  Deixa Falar, first samba school founded in Rio de Janeiro in Estácio de Sá neighborhood 
1930  Getulìo Vargas's era begins 
1931 Brazilian Black Front (Frente Negra Brasileira) is founded by Arlindo Veiga dos Santos, Isaltino Veiga dos Santos, and Jose Correia Leite. A Voz da Raca(The Voice of the Race) was its paper. It fought for social and economic uplift of Afro-Brazilians and was the most important black organization since the abolition movement.
1933  The Masters and the Slaves by Gilberto Freyre, elaborates Brazil's "racial democracy" theory, which holds that Brazilians are one race and racism does not exist in Brazilian society. It made Brazilian African heritage acceptable, which was once suppress and avoided. 
1936  Brazilian Black Front (Frente Negra Brasileira) becomes a political party 
1937  Brazil becomes a dictatorship under Vargas(Estado Nôvo), bans all political parties, Black Front (Frente Negra) eventually diminishes 
1938  Brazilian Black Front (Frente Negra Brasileira) shutsdown operation 
1941  Mestre Pastinha opens capoeira school to preserve form 
1944  Abdias do Nascimento founded the Black Experimental Theater(Teatro Experimental do Negro or TEN) in Rio de Janeiro, which celebrated Afro-Brazilian culture and trained black actors, at a time when black roles were played by white actors in blackface.  
1945  Oct. 29, Brazil returns to civilian rule, last till 1964, military takeover
  -Whitening ends as official government policy replaced by Racial Democracy dogma 
1956  Alfonso Arinos Law prohibits racial discrimination 
1959  the film Black Orpheus is released 
1960  Military takes over country, military dictatorship ends in 1984 
1962  Brazil wins World Cup with Mané Garrincha at helm
1963  Brazil wins World Cup with Pelé at the helm 
1964  Military takeover, last till 1985, back to civilian rule 
1967  Gilberto Gil performs at the Third Festival of Brazilian Popular Music, inaugurates the Tropicália, cultural movement in the arts and includes Caetano Veloso, Maria Bethãnía, Gal Costa, Tom Zé 
1969  Florestan Fernandes purged from the University of Sao Paulo. Fernandes had a counter theory to Freyre's "racial democracy." Freyre's "racial democracy" was espoused by the military dictatorship and Brazilian society. Fernandes coined the phrase “the prejudice of having no prejudice”  
1970  -Brazil wins World Cup with Pelé at the helm
  -Race was omitted from the census to quell all discussion of race and racism 
1976  First time Brazil took stats on income and employment based on race 
1978 -Black Consciousness Movement(Moviemento Negro) an organization dedicated to the promotion of Afro-Brazilian culture and social empowerment in Brazil is formed. Founders included Flavia Cardanca, Hamilton Cardoso, Vander Lei Jose Maria, Abdias do Nascimento. The organization was founded after the assassination of taxi driver Robson Luz by police.
1974  Ile Aiye became the first group to de-segregate Rio Carnaval, tried to re-africanize carnival 
1976 Zezé Motta stars in Xica Da Silva 
1980  -Quilombhoji, a literary organization for black writers is organized in Beixiga by poet Luiz Silva Cuti. The publication arm of the organization was Jornegro 
  -Race statistic re-introduced in the census 
  -Edivaldo Brito becomes the first elected black Mayor of Salvador, Bahia---80% black population
1982  Benedita Da Silva elected councilor in Rio de Janeiro 
1984  -Military dictatorship ends 
  -Corpo a corpo first telenovela to address the problem of race in Brazilian society, starring Zezé Motta 
1985  return to civilian rule 
1987  Benedita Da Silva was the first elected black woman deputy in Brazil's Congress
1988 Article 68 of the constitution grants land title to descendants of quilombos
1990  6 blacks in Congress of 559; 5 black bishop out of 370; 200 dark skinned priest out of 14,000; very few generals, admirals, and ambassador
1993  11 blacks in congress, only four oriented to a black agenda 
1995  -President Fernando Henrique Cardosa admits racism in Brazilian society, initiates formaton of an advisory council on the race question 
  -Nov. 24, Brazil honors quilombo leader, Zumbi. "The Zumbi March Against Racism" 30,000 Afro-Brazilians took part.   
1996  Nov., Celso Pitta became Sao Paolo's first elected black mayor 
2002  Luis Inacio Lula da Silva of the Workers Party is elected president, appoints the largest number of Afro-Brazilian cabinet members, advocates affirmative action in Brazilian society--colleges, media etc.
2003  -Unipalmares(Universidad Zumbi dos Palmares), first black university in Brazil;
-University of Rio de Janeiro, first to implement Affirmative Action, 20% spot for black student
-Matilde Ribeiro made Minister of Racial Equality(Lula appointee)
  -Joaquim Barbosa- first black person to be elected and serve on the Brazilian Supreme Court (Lula appointee)
  -Lula appoints 3 black in administration, 1 who was mixed race, Pele was the highest ranking official in a Brazilian cabinet prior to Lula's appointments
2004 Taís Araújo acquired a major starring role in Da Cor do Pecado, becoming the first Afro-Brazilian in a leading role in a telenovela 
2005  Tv a Gente first black television station in Brazil founded by Netinho de Paula, in Sao Paulo  
2007  the largest Afro-Brazilian metropolitan area is Salvador, Bahia 
2008  Unipalmares graduates its first class 
2010  Census indicates a majority of Brazilians(196 million) admit themselves to be black and mixed race; shift from a majority selecting white
2011  May 23-24, Abdias do Nascimento dies 
2012 -Lázaro Ramos, first black male starring in a lead role on a telenovela, Insensato Coração
  -Joaquim Barbosa elected first black president of the Brazilian Supreme Court 
2013Nayara Justino becomes the first non-mulatta to win Ms. Globeleza , title was remove because of complaints of being "too black"
2014  -Afro-Brazilian Marina Silva makes competive bid for the presidency of Brazil 
2015 -Tv GLOBO ,notorious for under-representation of Afro-Brazilians , premieres Mister Brau , a comedy surrounding black protagonists
   
   
   
   


Works Cited

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr and Appiah, Kwame Anthony(1999). Africana: the Encyclopedia of African and African American Experience. Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.

Gates, Henry Louis. Black in Latin America: Brazil Timeline. PBS.org

Andrews, George Reid(1991). Blacks and Whites in Sao Paulo Brazil 1888-1988. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-13100-9


Rohter, Larry. Brazil on the Rise, the Story of  a Country Transformed. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61887-9

Schneider, Ronald M(1991). Order and Progress-A Political History of Brazil. Westview ISBN 0-8133-1076-8

Schwartz, Stuart B. Slave, Peasants, and Rebels-Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery. ISBN 0-252-01874-5

Skidmore, Thomas E. Brazil Five Centuries of Change. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505809-7

Burkholder, Mark A. and Johnson, Lyman L(2010). Colonial Latin America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-538605-9